Elves originated in Germanic folklore as various types of supernatural beings or spirits but perception of their identity developed to being small, friendly and beautiful humanoid beings. However their original identity was very different and stories of their cunning behavior related to humans tell of a dark and hostile nature.
« La mission (évangélique) par échanges culturels, puis par la parole, puis par l& 39;épée » (1). Cette phrase résume en substance l& 39;ensemble des procédés qui ont permis l& 39;évangélisation de ceux que les chroniqueurs latins nomment les Nortmann, les peuples établis au delà de l& 39;empire carolingien au nord, c& 39;est-à-dire la Scandinave.
If the name of Genghis Khan is relatively well known in France (even if by the way it is not a name, but a title ...), it is not even of its history. For many, Genghis Khan is vaguely a bloodthirsty conqueror of the Mongolian steppes. Few are able to say more.
The invention of paper is attributed to the Chinese, who developed it around the year 100 from AD 100. Mulberry bark and exploited it for almost five centuries before introducing it to Japan, around AD 610. The process is relatively simple: first, dissolving the raw material in it. 39; water, in the form of fibers, then its transformation into sheets by drying on a porous surface.
Conservative and apathetic, the CSI does not adapt well to a discipline that is changing ever faster. It disappeared in 1978, the FIA replacing it on this occasion by another body, called FISA (International Federation of Motorsport), and placed at its head a French, energetic Jean-Marie Balestre.
Prosopography, or the biographical study of historical figures, has been in vogue for several years in historiography. The biography of Georg Friedrich Handel, written by Marc Belissa, is no exception to this renewed tradition. Lecturer in Modern History at the University of Paris Ouest-Nanterre La Défense (Paris X), Marc Belissa is a specialist in the 18th century and the Enlightenment.
Oleg the Wise, who died in 912, is Prince of Novgorod and Kiev. He & 39; s a rus lord & 39 ;, a Varègue, of the dynasty of Riourikides. Nestor's Chronicle, also known as the 'Tale of Times Gone,' written in the 12th century by Orthodox monks, chronicles the early years of the construction of the Rus state & 39; from Kiev, all along the “Varègues aux Greeks Route”, a road linking the Baltic to the Black Sea and Constantinople, taking in particular the courses of the Lovat and the Dnieper.
What is Europe? This complex question has not stopped provoking controversial debates and controversies. At a time of Brexit and a new rise in nationalism and identity withdrawal, asking the question of what Europeans are seems more relevant than ever.
Today, the health crises - mad cow disease, foot-and-mouth disease, avian influenza - in the meat industry raise questions about the regulations of the food chain. Indeed, from the Middle Ages, fear of the unhealthy and corrupt led the West to put under surveillance and to legislate on food, especially on meat in order to prevent any potential risk.
John Byng: a name totally unknown in France. And yet, many French people have heard of it without realizing it. Voltaire mentions it at the beginning of one of his most studied high school books, Candide. In it he depicts the execution of an admiral guilty of losing a battle, with this quote: "In this country it is good to kill an admiral every now and then to encourage others."
Philippe Auguste could no longer bear the pestilential odors in Paris in the years 1186. On the other hand, he left to the good care of the inhabitants, to pav in the poor districts! Then he built the first market halls in Paris as well as many butchers to supply Paris with meat, then the Saint Gervais aqueduct to bring water from Romainville and Ménilmontant.
If the month of June 1940 is obviously well known to the general public, this is less the case in the following weeks, after General de Gaulle's call on the 18th and then the signing of the armistice on the 21st in Rethondes. We see this with the Mers el-Kebir affair on July 3, 1940, which saw the destruction of part of the French fleet by its British counterpart.
It would be illusory to believe that one and only one method will allow you to obtain a good mark on the History-Geography test of the bac. Still, a few things can easily make a note go up, just as others can make it drop. Some advice on the expectations of proofreaders, the mistakes to avoid, and the tips that will make your copy unique.
The Thucydides association organized on March 13, 2012 a History Café dedicated to Henri IV. Women who, from his mother Jeanne d'Albret to his wives Marguerite de Valois and Marie de Médicis, including his mistresses such as Gabrielle d'Estrées, held a central place in the life of Henri IV, sovereign but also poet talent lover.
Penultimate queen of the Valois, wife of Charles IX, Elisabeth of Austria (1554-1592) was a gentle, good wife, dominated by Catherine de Medici, effaced like Claude and Eleanor; a discreet queen that we don't talk much about; a queen as we loved them at that time, a queen who above all does not get involved in politics!
We often talk about the "crisis of the third century", or even the famous "decline" of the Empire, which would have led to its no less famous "fall", historiographical clichés fortunately more and more questioned. Emperor Heliogabal is interesting in more than one way: his short reign comes in the first half of the third century, a period of transition following the coming to power of the Severus, a dynasty that succeeded the Antonines, considered to be the emperors. of the Golden Age of Rome.
Taking up the “fantastic peplum” of the same name produced in 1981 by Desmond Davis, “Clash of the Titans” immerses the spectator in 2 hours of great Hollywood spectacle in 3D! But behind this big-budget production and this recovery of the hero Perseus, don't we see a need in our society, like the ancients, to use the myth to externalize its deepest questions?
The prosperity of Lyon continues to grow to reach its peak during the Renaissance. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the growth and prestige of the city were incomparable. Lyon then returned to economic prosperity maintained by the appearance of fairs and banks which attracted traders from all over Europe.
In this book, Joseph Vebret, novelist and specialist in the history of literature, invites us to examine the eventful life of Napoleon Bonaparte's first son: Léon. Within the extended imperial family, the latter occupies a very special place, that of the black sheep, the failure, whose long descent into hell arouses both contempt and pity.
After the departure of Marie de Mancini, his love of youth, Louis XIV found consolation in the gracious Henrietta of England, wife of his brother. Henriette, with the help of Count St Aignan, a close friend of the young monarch, used the so-called "screen" or "candlestick" strategy, widely used in these libertine times and which served to distort appearances.
For a long time, historians have considered that when it comes to the education of girls, the royal house of education of St Cyr was both an example and a uniqueness within a society or educational priorities are male. Recent historical research on the subject, however, has demonstrated the desire to educate girls as well, but this education extends far beyond the nobility as it also reaches the most disadvantaged strata of society.