Information

Roper DD- 147 - History


Roper

(DD-147: dp. 1,090, 1. 314'5", b. 31'8", dr. 9'10", s. 35 k.
cpl. 101, a. 4 4", 2 3", 12 21" tt., el. Wickes)

Roper (DD-147) was laid down on 19 March 1918 by William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., launched 17 August 1918, sponsored by Mrs. Jesse M. Roper widow of Lieutenant Commander Roper, and commissioned on 15 February 1919, Commander Abram Claude in command

Following shakedown off the New England coast, Roper sailed east in mid June 1919 and, after stops at Ponta Delgada, Gibraltar, and Malta, anchored in the Bosporus on 5 July. For the next month she supported Peace Commission and Relief Committee work in the Blaek Sea area, carrying mail and passengers to and from Constantinople, Novorossisk Batum, Samsun, and Trebizond. On 20 August the destroyer returned to the United States, at New York, only to sail again 6 days later. At the end of the month she transited the Panama Canal and moved north to San Diego.

Roper remained on the west coast until July 1921. On the 23d, she departed San Francisco for duty on the Asiatie Station. Arriving at Cavite on 24 August, she remained in the Philippines into December. She then moved into Chinese waters and, into the summer, operated primarily from Hong Kong and Chefoo. On 25 August 1922, she headed back to California. Routed via Nagasaki, Midway, and Pearl Harbor she arrived at San Francisco on 13 October. Two days later she shifted to San Pedro, thence, proceeded to San Diego where she was decommissioned on 14 December 1922 and berthed with the Pacific Reserve Fleet.

Recommissioned On 18 March 1930, Roper resumed operations in the Pacific. Operating primarily in the southern California area, in active and rotating reserve squadrons, for the next 7 years, she deployed to Panama, to Hawaii and to the Caribbean for fleet problems and maneuvers fin 1931 1933, 1935, and 1936. During January and February of the latter year, she also moved north for operations in Alaskan waters.

In Febmary 1937, Roper departed California and, after transiting the Panama Canal, joined the Atlantic Fleet. For the remainder of the year, through 1938 and into 1939, she conducted exercises primarily off the mid-Atlantic seaboard and, during part of each Year, in the Caribbean. In November 1939, after the outbreak of World War II in EuroDe, she shifted from Norfolk to Key West, whence she patrolled the Yueatan Channel and the Florida Straits. In December she returned to Norfolk. In January 1940, she moved south again, to Charleston and in Marchshe headed north for duty on the New England Patrol.

Through the prewar "Neutrality Patrol" period, Roper continued to range the waters off the east and gulf coasts. Off Cape Cod on 7 December 1941, she returned to Norfolk for an abbreviated availability at midmonth, then steamed to Argentia. In early February 1942, she completed a convoy escort run to Londonderry, then, in March, returned to the Norfolk area for patrol and escort duty. A month later, on the night of 13-14 April, she made contact with a surfaced German U-boat off the coast of North Carolina. The ensuing chase ended with the sinking of U-86, a unit of the 7th U-boat Flotilla.

At the end of May, Roper began a series of coastwise escort runs, from Key West to New York, which took her into 1943. In February of that year, she shifted to Caribbean-Mediterranean convoy work and remained on that duty until October when she entered the Charleston Navy Yard for conversion to a highsDeed transport.

Reclassified APD-20 on 20 October 1943, Roper departed Charleston in late November and trained in the Chesapeake Bay area and off the Florida coast into the new year, 1944 On 13 April she steamed east and at the end of the month joined the 8th Fleet at Oran, Algeria. A unit of Transport Division 13, assigned to support the offensive in Italy, Roper landed units of the Freneh Army on Pianosa on 17 June and into July, plied between Oran and Naples and operates along the western coast of the embattled peninsula. In August she shifted her attention to southern France. On the 15th she arrived off that coast as part of the "Sitka" Force and landed troops on Ievant Island. On 5 September she returned to Italy; resumed runs between Naples nnd Oran, and, in early December departed the latter port for Hampton Roads.

Arriving at Norfolk on the 21st, Roper sailed again on 29 January 1945. On transiting the Panama Canal, she reported to the Pacific Fleet, and, after stops in California and Hawaii moved into the Marianas. On 11 May she departed Guam for the Ryukyus. Arriving in Nakagusuku Wan on the 22d, she eireled to the Hagushi anchorage the same day. Three days later, while on screening station off that transport area she was hit by a kamikaze.

Ordered back to the United States to complete repairs, she departed the Ryukyus on 6 June and reached San Pedro a month later. In August she shifted to Mare Island, but with the cessation of hostilities repair work was halted. Decommissioned on 15 September 1945, Roper's name was struck from the Navy list on 11 October 1945 and her hulk was sold to the Lerner Co., Oakland, Calif. Removed in June 1946, it was scrapped the following December.

Roper earned four battle stars during World War II.


USS Roper DD-147 (1919-1945)

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Contents

Inter-War Period [ edit | edit source ]

Following shakedown off the New England coast, Roper sailed east in mid-June 1919 and, after stops at Ponta Delgada, Gibraltar, and Malta, anchored in the Bosporus on 5 July. For the next month she supported Peace Commission and Relief Committee work in the Black Sea area, carrying mail and passengers to and from Constantinople, Novorossisk, Batum, Samsun, and Trebizond. On 20 August the destroyer returned to the United States, at New York City, only to sail again six days later. At the end of the month she transited the Panama Canal and moved north to San Diego, California. [1]

Roper remained on the West Coast until July 1921. On 23 July, she departed San Francisco, California, for duty on the Asiatic Station. Arriving at Cavite, Philippine Islands, on 24 August, she remained in the Philippines into December. She then moved into Chinese waters and, into the summer, operated primarily from Hong Kong and Chefoo. On 25 August 1922, she headed back to California. Routed via Nagasaki, Midway, and Pearl Harbor she arrived at San Francisco on 13 October. Two days later she shifted to San Pedro, California, thence proceeded to San Diego, where she was decommissioned on 14 December 1922 and berthed with the Pacific Reserve Fleet. [1]

Recommissioned on 18 March 1930, Roper resumed operations in the Pacific. Operating primarily in the southern California area, in active and rotating reserve squadrons, for the next seven years, she deployed to Panama, to Hawaii and to the Caribbean Sea for fleet problems and maneuvers in 1931, 1933, 1935, and 1936. During 1933, Lieutenant, junior grade Robert A. Heinlein transferred aboard Roper. In 1934 he was promoted to Lieutenant, then "invalided out," permanently disabled from tuberculosis. During January and February 1936, Roper moved north for operations in Alaskan waters. [1]

In February 1937, Roper departed California and, after transiting the Panama Canal, joined the Atlantic Fleet. For the remainder of the year, through 1938, and into 1939, she conducted exercises primarily off the mid-Atlantic seaboard and, during part of each year, in the Caribbean. In November 1939, after the outbreak of World War II in Europe, she shifted from Norfolk, Virginia, to Key West, Florida, whence she patrolled the Yucatan Channel and the Florida Straits. In December, she returned to Norfolk. In January 1940, she moved south again, to Charleston, South Carolina, and in March she headed north for duty on the New England Patrol. [1]

World War II [ edit | edit source ]

Through the prewar Neutrality Patrol period, Roper continued to range the waters off the East and Gulf Coasts. Off Cape Cod on 7 December 1941, she returned to Norfolk for an abbreviated availability at midmonth, and then steamed to NS Argentia, Newfoundland. In early February 1942, she completed a convoy escort run to Londonderry Port, then, in March, returned to the Norfolk area for patrol and escort duty. A month later, on the night of 13/14 April, she made contact with a surfaced U-boat off the coast of North Carolina. The ensuing chase ended with the sinking by artillery fire of German submarine U-85 (1941), a unit of the 7th U-boat Flotilla. [1] Former German Navy historian Helmut Schmoeckel suggested in a 2002 book that the failure of Roper to rescue the U-85 crew after they abandoned the submarine and Roper ' s subsequent depth charging of U-85 constituted a war crime. [2] According to the after action report, the attack occurred after midnight local time after Roper closed to identify an unknown contact (U-85) and was narrowly missed by a torpedo prior to opening fire. The commanding officer delayed rescue operations until daybreak and after the arrival of air support from a PBY Catalina and an airship due to concern of an attack by a second u-boat. [3] No charges were filed against the crew of Roper and 29 sailors of U-85 were buried with military honors at Hampton National Cemetery. [4] Commanding officer, Lieutenant Commander Hamilton W. Howe received the Navy Cross for the engagement of the submarine [5] and retired in 1956 with the rank of Rear Admiral. [6]

On 29 April, Roper rescued fourteen survivors from the British merchantman Empire Drum, which had been torpedoed and sunk by U-136 five days earlier. On 1 May, she rescued another thirteen survivors from Empire Drum. They were landed at Norfolk, Virginia, that day. [7] At the end of May, Roper began a series of coastwise escort runs, from Key West to New York, which took her into 1943. In February of that year, she shifted to Caribbean Sea-Mediterranean Sea convoy work and remained on that duty until October when she entered the Charleston Navy Yard for conversion to a high speed transport. [1]

Convoys escorted [ edit | edit source ]

Auxiliary service [ edit | edit source ]

Reclassified and given hull classification symbol APD-20 on 20 October 1943, Roper departed Charleston in late November and trained in the Chesapeake Bay area and off the Florida coast into the new year, 1944. On 13 April, she steamed east and at the end of the month joined the 8th Fleet at Oran, Algeria. A unit of Transport Division 13, assigned to support the offensive in Italy, Roper landed units of the French Army on Pianosa on 17 June and, into July, plied between Oran and Naples and operated along the western coast of the embattled peninsula. In August, she shifted her attention to southern France. On 15 August, she arrived off that coast as part of the "Sitka" Force and landed troops on Levant Island. On 5 September she returned to Italy resumed runs between Naples and Oran, and, in early December departed the latter port for Hampton Roads. [1]

Arriving at Norfolk on 21 December, Roper sailed again on 29 January 1945. On transiting the Panama Canal, she reported to the Pacific Fleet, and, after stops in California and Hawaii, moved into the Mariana Islands. On 11 May, she departed Guam for the Ryukyu Islands. Arriving in Nakagusuku Wan on 22 May, she circled to the Hagushi anchorage the same day. Three days later, while on screening station off that transport area she was hit by a kamikaze. [1]

Ordered back to the United States to complete repairs, she departed the Ryukyus on 6 June and reached San Pedro a month later. In August, she shifted to Mare Island, but with the cessation of hostilities repair work was halted. Decommissioned on 15 September 1945, Roper ' s name was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 11 October 1945, and her hulk was sold to the Lerner Company, Oakland, California. Removed in June 1946, it was scrapped the following December. [1]


Events related to this officer

Destroyer USS Roper (DD 147)

23 Mar 1942
USS Roper sank the bow section of the damaged American tanker Naeco with gunfire. The Neaco was torpedoed by German U-boat U-124 about 65 nautical miles south-east of Cape Lookout, North Carolina in position 33°59'N, 76°40'W.

31 Mar 1942
USS Roper picks up 70 survivors of the American passenger ship City of New York that was torpedoed and sunk on 29 March 1943 by German U-boat U-160 40 nautical miles east of Cape Hatteras in position 35°16'N, 74°25'W.

14 Apr 1942 (position 35.55, -75.13)
On this day USS Roper (Lt.Cdr. Hamilton Howe) sank U-85 near Cape Hatteras, USA.

U-85 was the first U-boat to be sunk off the North American coast after the start of Operation Drumbeat (Paukenschlag) on 13 January 1942.

On the day that she was sunk U-85 stayed on the surface through the engagement. After repeated gunfire hits on the boat, fatally damaging her, the order to abandon ship was given and maybe half of the crew got into the water and then U-85 started to sink again fast. USS Roper then dropped 11 depth charges onto the already sinking U-boat and its 2 dozen survivors and in the process killed everyone in the water.

The wreck of U-85 is now a popular dive site.

23 Apr 1942
USS Roper picks up 30 survivors from the Panamanian merchant Desert Light that was torpedoed and sunk on 16 April 1942 east of Cape Hattaras in position 35°35'N, 72°48'W by German U-boat U-572.

29 Apr 1942 (position 37.47, -71.28)
USS Roper picks up 14 survivors from the British merchant Empire Drum that was torpedoed and sunk on 24 April 1942 southeast of New York by German U-boat U-136. 13 more survivors from the same ship were picked up on 1 May.

You can help improve officers Hamilton Wilcox Howe's page
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Free banking gone awry: the Australian banking crisis of 1893

Australia during the second half of the nineteenth century experimented with a free banking system. However, the severe banking crisis experienced in 1893 poses a difficulty for proponents of free banking as they argue that such systems should be free from instability. We suggest that the few regulations that Australian banks faced were either not credible or had minimal impact on bank prudential behaviour. Using data on individual banks and the overall banking system, we go on to suggest that the 1893 banking crisis was the natural outcome of an unregulated environment. We also examine the role played by the colonial governments during the crisis.

Durant la seconde moitié du dix-neuvième siècle, l'Australie fit l'expérience d'un régime de ‘free banking’. Cependant, la crise bancaire très sévère que connut l'Australie en 1893 pose un problème aux tenants du ‘free banking’ qui considèrent que de tels systèmes doivent être dépurvus d'instabilité. Nous estimons que les faibles réglementations auxquelles étaient soumises les banques australiennes ou bien n'étaient pas crédibles ou bien firent peu pour encourager un comportement bancaire prudent. Utilisant des données relatives aux banques individuelles et au système bancaire en général, nous considérons que la crise bancaire de 1893 fut la conséquence naturelle d'un environnement déréglementé. Nous examinons également le comportement des gouvernements coloniaux durant la crise.

In der zweiten Hälfte des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts experimentierte Australien mit einem freien Bankwesen. Aber die schwere Bankenkrise von 1893 bringt diejenigen in Schwierigkeiten, die argumentieren, freie Systeme seien frei von Instabilität. Wir argumentieren, dass die wenigen Regeln, denen sich australische Banken gegenüber sahen, entweder nicht glaubwürdig waren oder eine minimale Bedeutung für das gute kaufmännische Verhalten hatten. Wir untermauern unseren Vorschlag, dass die Bankenkrise von 1893 das natürliche Ergebnis einer unregulierten Umgebung war, anhand von Daten zu einzelnen Banken und dem gesamten Bankwesen. Wir untersuchen auch die Rolle der Kolonialregierung während der Krise.

Australia, durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX experimentó con un sistema de banca libre. Sin embargo, la severa crisis bancaria experimentada en 1893 supuso una dificultad para los que proponían una banca libre, ya que éstos defendían que tales sistemas debían permanecer libres ante la inestabilidad. Nosotros sugerimos que las pocas regulaciones que los bancos australianos afrontaban, o no eran creibles o tenían un impacto mínimo sobre el comportamiento prudente bancario. Utilizando datos individuales sobre los bancos y sobre el sistema bancario, sugerimos que la crisis bancaria de 1893 fue el resultado natural de un entorno sin reglas. También examinamos el papel que jugaron los gobiernos coloniales durante la crisis.


How AI Improves Demand Forecasts

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Strategic decision-making. AI can tell users which materials, plants and SKUs to focus on, and recommends actions to close gaps between unit-level and financial forecasts. Planners are able to spend less time on manual work and focus on value-added strategic decisions.


How Many Plays and Sonnets Did Shakespeare Write?

Most scholars accept that William Shakespeare wrote 38 plays and 154 sonnets. Additionally, he wrote four longer poems. Though he may have written other plays, they are lost to history.

One play of Shakespeare's, "The Two Noble Kinsmen," was a collaboration with John Fletcher, who succeeded him as the chief playwright for the King's Men, an elite acting company. Fletcher may have helped with other plays and may have collaborated with Shakespeare on the lost play "Cardenio." Scholars also believe that Shakespeare helped out with scenes in some other playwrights' work, especially "Edward III" and "The Book of Sir Thomas More." Some have attributed other plays and poems to William Shakespeare, but there is little evidence that he wrote them, according to Encyclopaedia Britannica.


Inhaltsverzeichnis

Zwischenkriegszeit Bearbeiten

Die USS Roper wurde am 19. März 1918 von William Cramp and Sons in Philadelphia mit der Baunummer 462 auf Kiel gelegt. Die Werft hatte mit Stockton und Conner schon zwei Zerstörer der Caldwell-Vorläufer und ab Rathburne (BauNr. 450) Zerstörer der Wilkes-Klasse gebaut. Auf der Werft entstanden mit den Baunummern 450 bis 455, sowie 457 bis 471 insgesamt 21 Zerstörer der Klasse. Am 17. August 1918 lief die Roper vom Stapel und wurde am 15. Februar 1919 unter dem Kommando von Abram Claude in Dienst gestellt.

Nach Erprobung vor der Küste von Neu England verlegte die Roper Mitte Juni 1919 nach Europa und ankerte am 5. Juli nach Stopps in Ponta Delgada, Gibraltar und Malta im Bosporus. Dort unterstützte sie für einen Monat die Arbeit des Peace Commission and Relief Committee im Schwarzen Meer mit dem Transport von Post und Personen zwischen Konstantinopel, Noworossijsk, Batumi, Samsun und Trabzon. Am 20. August kehrte der Zerstörer in die USA nach New York City zurück, von wo aus er sechs Tage später wieder in See stach. Gegen Ende des Monats durchquerte er den Panamakanal und fuhr nordwärts zum Flottenstützpunkt San Diego.

Die Roper blieb bis Juli 1921 an der Westküste. Am 23. Juli verließ sie San Francisco mit dem Ziel Cavite auf den Philippinen, das sie am 24. August erreichte. Im Dezember wurde sie in chinesische Gewässer verlegt und operierte bis zum Sommer von Hongkong und Chefoo aus. Am 25. August 1922 kehrte sie nach Kalifornien zurück. Über Nagasaki, Midway und Pearl Harbor erreichte sie San Francisco am 13. Oktober. Zwei Tage später verlegte sie nach San Pedro und von dort aus nach San Diego, wo sie am 14. Dezember 1922 außer Dienst gestellt und der Pacific Reserve Fleet zugeteilt wurde.

Nach über sieben Jahren in der Reserve wurde die Roper am 18. März 1930 wieder in Dienst gestellt und operierte als Teil aktiver bzw. wechselnder Reservegeschwader während der nächsten sieben Jahre vor allem im südlichen Bereich der kalifornischen Küste. 1931, 1933, 1935 und 1936 nahm sie an Flottenmanövern in Panama, Hawaii und der Karibik teil. 1933 kam Lieutenant (junior grade) Robert A. Heinlein an Bord der Roper. 1934 wurde er zum Leutnant zur See befördert, bevor der spätere Science-Fiction-Schriftsteller aufgrund von Tuberkulose verabschiedet wurde. Im Januar und Februar 1936 verlegte die Roper nordwärts in die Gewässer vor Alaska.

Im Februar 1937 verließ die Roper Kalifornien und wurde der US-Atlantikflotte unterstellt. Bis 1939 führte sie Übungen im Mittelatlantik und in der Karibik durch. Im November 1939, nach dem Ausbruch des Zweiten Weltkrieges in Europa, wurde sie von Norfolk nach Key West verlegt, von wo aus sie in der Yucatán- und der Floridastraße patrouillierte. Im Dezember kehrte sie nach Norfolk zurück. Im Januar 1940 fuhr sie wieder südwärts nach Charleston und im März nordwärts für die Neu-England-Patrouille.

Zweiter Weltkrieg Bearbeiten

Während der Zeit der Amerikanischen Neutralitätspatrouille kreuzte die Roper weiter in den Gewässern vor der amerikanischen und karibischen Ostküste. Von einem Standort vor Cape Cod kehrte sie im Rahmen erhöhter Alarmbereitschaft am 7. Dezember 1941 kurzzeitig nach Norfolk zurück und verlegte dann zur neuen Naval Station Argentia nahe Placentia auf Neufundland. Anfang Februar 1942 begleitete sie einen Geleitzug nach Londonderry, bevor sie im März für den Patrouillen- und Begleitdienst im Seegebiet vor Norfolk heimreiste.

Einen Monat später, in der Nacht vom 13. auf den 14. April, überraschte sie vor der Küste von North Carolina das aufgetauchte deutsche U-Boot U 85. U 85 schoss einen Torpedo auf die herannahende Roper, bevor es durch Artilleriebeschuss der Roper so schwer beschädigt wurde, dass der deutsche Kommandant den Befehl zum Verlassen des Bootes geben musste. Fast der gesamten U-Boot-Besatzung gelang der Ausstieg, die Besatzung der Roper setzte jedoch die Verfolgung des U-Boots fort und warf eine Salve von elf Wasserbomben, während etwa 40 Besatzungsmitglieder des U-Boots im Wasser trieben. Am nächsten Tag wurden die Leichen von 29 Besatzungsmitgliedern geborgen und später auf dem Hampton National Cemetery in Hampton (Virginia) mit militärischen Ehren beigesetzt. Helmut Schmoeckel vertritt die Ansicht, es handele sich hierbei um ein Kriegsverbrechen und zieht einen Vergleich mit dem Prozess gegen den U-Boot-Kommandanten Eck, der wegen der Beschießung von Schiffbrüchigen von den Alliierten hingerichtet wurde. [1] [2]

Vom Mai 1942 bis Anfang 1943 wurde die Roper in der Konvoi-Sicherung zwischen Key West und New York eingesetzt. Ab Februar 1943 sicherte der Zerstörer Konvois zwischen der Karibik und dem Mittelmeer. Ab Oktober 1943 erfolgte dann der Umbau des alten Zerstörers auf dem Charleston Navy Yard zu einem Schnelltransporter.

Schnelltransporter Bearbeiten

Umklassifiziert verließ die Roper als APD-20 Charleston Ende November für Manöver in der Chesapeake Bay und vor der Küste Floridas. Am 13. April 1944 verlegte sie nach Osten, wo sie Ende des Monats in Oran/Algerien zur 8. US-Flotte stieß. Als Teil der Transport-Division 13, die mit der Unterstützung der Offensive in Italien beauftragt war, landete sie am 17. Juni Einheiten der FFL bei Pianosa und verkehrte bis Juli zwischen Oran und Neapel und kreuzte vor der Westküste der umkämpften italienischen Halbinsel. Am 15. August landete sie vor der südfranzösischen Küste Truppen auf der Ile du Levant als Teil der "Sitka-Force" zusammen mit Tattnall, Barry, Greene und Osmond Ingram. Am 5. September kreuzte sie wieder vor Italien, wo sie den Verkehr zwischen Oran und Neapel wieder aufnahm, bevor sie Anfang Dezember Oran mit dem Ziel Hampton Roads verließ.

Nach der Ankunft in Norfolk am 21. Dezember verlegte die Roper am 29. Januar 1945 wieder zur Pazifikflotte. Nach Stopps in Kalifornien und Hawaii erreichte sie die Marianen. Am 11. Mai ging sie von Guam nach den Ryūkyū-Inseln. Kurz nach ihrem Eintreffen in Nakagusuku Wan am 22. Mai wechselte sie am selben Tag auf die Reede von Hagushi. Drei Tage später wurde sie, mit Sicherungsaufgaben in diesem Gebiet beauftragt, von einem Kamikazeflieger getroffen. [3]

Zur Reparatur in die USA zurückbeordert, verließ die Roper die Ryukyu-Inseln am 6. Juni und erreichte San Pedro einen Monat später. Im August verlegte sie nach Mare Island, aber mit der Einstellung der Kämpfe wurden die Reparaturen gestoppt. Am 15. September 1945 wurde die Roper außer Dienst gestellt und ihr Name am 11. Oktober 1945 aus dem Naval Vessel Register gestrichen. Der Rumpf wurde danach an die Lerner Company in Oakland verkauft und im Dezember 1946 dann verschrottet.

Bis heute trägt kein anderes Schiff der United States Navy den Namen Roper.

Die Roper wurde während des Zweiten Weltkrieges mit vier Battle Stars ausgezeichnet:


What Is the 15th Amendment?

The 15th Amendment states: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

Despite the amendment&aposs passage, by the late 1870s discriminatory practices were used to prevent Black citizens from exercising their right to vote, especially in the South. It wasn’t until the Voting Rights Act of 1965 that legal barriers were outlawed at the state and local levels if they denied African Americans their right to vote under the 15th Amendment."


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Watch the video: USS Roper and the U-85 (November 2021).