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Ukraine Geography - History


UKRAINE

The Ukraine is located in Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland and Russia. Most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south.
Climate: The climate is temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north,lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south.
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People of Ukraine

When Ukraine was a part of the Soviet Union, a policy of Russian in-migration and Ukrainian out-migration was in effect, and ethnic Ukrainians’ share of the population in Ukraine declined from 77 percent in 1959 to 73 percent in 1991. But that trend reversed after the country gained independence, and, by the turn of the 21st century, ethnic Ukrainians made up more than three-fourths of the population. Russians continue to be the largest minority, though they now constitute less than one-fifth of the population. The remainder of the population includes Belarusians, Moldovans, Bulgarians, Poles, Hungarians, Romanians, Roma (Gypsies), and other groups. The Crimean Tatars, who were forcibly deported to Uzbekistan and other Central Asian republics in 1944, began returning to the Crimea in large numbers in 1989 by the early 21st century they constituted one of the largest non-Russian minority groups. In March 2014 Russia forcibly annexed Crimea, a move that was condemned by the international community, and human rights groups subsequently documented a series of repressive measures that had been taken against the Crimean Tatars by Russian authorities.

Historically, Ukraine had large Jewish and Polish populations, particularly in the Right Bank region (west of the Dnieper River). In fact, in the late 19th century slightly more than one-fourth of the world’s Jewish population (estimated at 10 million) lived in ethnic Ukrainian territory. This predominantly Yiddish-speaking population was greatly reduced by emigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and by the devastation of the Holocaust. In the late 1980s and early ’90s, large numbers of Ukraine’s remaining Jews emigrated, mainly to Israel. At the turn of the 21st century, the several hundred thousand Jews left in Ukraine made up less than 1 percent of the Ukrainian population. Most of Ukraine’s large Polish minority was resettled in Poland after World War II as part of a Soviet plan to have ethnic settlement match territorial boundaries. Fewer than 150,000 ethnic Poles remained in Ukraine at the turn of the 21st century.


Geography – Travel over Seas and Mountains, across Grass Plains and through Rivers

The fascinating country of Ukraine is located in Eastern Europe and is bordered by the Black Sea, Poland, Russia, Belarus, Hungary, Moldova, Romania and Slovakia. If you had to look on a map, you would find Ukraine at 49 00 N, 32 00 E. Ukraine is a geographically interesting country with many variations of climate and terrain taking place in an area which is only slightly smaller than the US state of Texas.

Ukraine enjoys some 2782 km of varied coastline – from stunning white beaches to rocky shores. It has no inland bodies of water but enjoys a large number of fertile plains or steppes nonetheless. The vast majority of the country consists of grassy, fertile plains and plateaus. The only mountains in Ukraine can be found in the west and extreme south of the country. The Carpathian Mountains are in the west and the Crimean Peninsula is in the south.

Generally speaking, Ukraine enjoys a temperate continental climate. On the southern Crimean coast it becomes somewhat Mediterranean. Winters along the coast may be cool and temperatures drop the further inland you go. Summers are warm to hot depending on what part of the country you are visiting. Ukraine enjoys a large variety of natural resources which are constantly mined and sourced for both local use and exporting. Some 57.1% of the country’s landmass is considered to be very arable and a large portion of this is already being farmed.

There are almost 23,000 rivers within the borders of Ukraine. Its longest river is the Dnieper (Dnipro) which is some 966 kilometers long. Other notable rivers include the Dniester, Donets, Danube and Southern Buh. Lake Svityaz is one of the largest natural lakes in the country. Water is used for drinking, transportation and hydroelectricity and is considered to be a very important natural resource in the country. As the second largest country in Europe, Ukraine’s geography is varied and picturesque. Don’t forget to take your camera with when visiting this beautiful country.

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Sevastopol

The beautiful city of Sevastopol is located on the Crimean Peninsula and is made up of four districts, namely Nakhimiovsky, Balaklavsky, Leninsky and Gagarinsky. Sevastopol has a population of about 400 thousand people who come from as many as twenty-six different nationalities. The local population here speaks mainly Ukrainian or Russian and a large majority attends the Eastern Orthodox .

Desnyano-Starogutskyi National Park

When you visit Ukraine you will find that there are a large number of national parks and nature reserves worth visiting. Deciding which national park in Ukraine to visit may be somewhat difficult since there are so many to choose from. Each natural area has been carefully selected because of its unique ecological features so you will find that there is quite a difference from one national .


Ukraine and Crimea: A Lesson in History and Geography

Scene from the Battle of Balaklava, site of the famous “Charge of the Light Brigade,” during the Crimean War, 1854

The crisis in Ukraine and Crimea cannot be understood without an eye to history and geography. The question whether Ukraine should align more with the West or remain in Russia’s orbit is not a new one. Ukraine has long occupied a precarious position between East and West. What is now western Ukraine was at one time under the control of European powers like Austria-Hungary, Poland, and Lithuania. People in western Ukraine today tend to support more Western-leaning policies and speak Ukrainian. Eastern Ukraine, which first came under Russian imperial rule in the late 1600s, tends to be more Russian-speaking.

It was not until the 1900s that the eastern and western parts of Ukraine were united. For centuries the southern part of Ukraine, which includes the Crimean Peninsula, was part of an Islamic state, under the sway of the Ottoman Turks. Imperial Russia drove the Turks out of what is now southern Russia in the late 1700s. It gained control of Crimea, which became a prized possession. Crimea offered access to the sea and a vital base for Russian naval power. In the 1850s France and Great Britain backed Turkey against Russia in the Crimean War, and Russia suffered a humiliating loss.

After the Ottomans were defeated in World War I, Ukraine was briefly independent. When Ukraine became part of the Soviet Union in 1922, Crimea was included in the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1954, Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev announced that Russia was giving Crimea to Ukraine—perhaps as a kind of reparation for the millions of Ukrainians who had died under Joseph Stalin’s ruthless rule. Ukraine achieved independence in 1991, after the collapse of the USSR, and Crimea remained within Ukraine as an autonomous republic. Russia maintained a naval base at Sevastopol, however, and the population of Crimea was majority ethnic Russian.


25 things you didn't know about Ukraine, the heart of Europe

Kiev, a hero city - not a chicken dish Credit: istock

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U kraine has had a turbulent time so far in the UEFA Championships losing 3-2 to the Netherlands in their first match - before beating North Macedonia 2-1. As the country gets ready to play its final match - on June 21 - in this round of the Euros, we present an array of facts and trivia you probably did not know about the Eastern European country.

1. It is large

Russia excluded, Ukraine is the continent’s largest county at 603,628 square kilometres, stretching from Russia in the east to Poland in the west, and sandwiched between the Black Sea in the south and fellow former Soviet state Belarus in the north. France is next at 551,500 square kilometres.

2. And boasts seven wonders

Within its large borders, Ukraine has seven World Heritage Sites, including the 11 th century Saint-Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, the ancient city of Chersonesus, and the primeval beech forests of the Carpathians. Another is the Struve Geodetic Arc, a chain of survey triangulations linking Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea in Ukraine. It “helped to establish the exact size and shape of the planet and marked an important step in the development of earth sciences and topographic mapping,” according to Unesco. Beyond its World Heritage Sites it has a wealth of majestic Orthodox cathedrals, including St Michael's in Kiev, pictured below.

3. It likes a drink

Data from the World Health Organisation (WHO) ranks Ukraine sixth for alcohol consumption, with 13.9 litres glugged per capita per year. Only Belarus, which tops the chart, Moldova, Lithuania, Russia and Romania consume more.

4. But it's not just vodka

While we’re on the subject, it’s worth noting that Ukrainians do not exclusively drink vodka, as one might assume. The national drink is called horilka, another clear spirit. While vodka means “little water”, horilka means “burning water”, a nod to the fact that drink is often flavoured with chili pepper.

5. It loves Mcdonald's

Ukraine is not all about booze. The McDonald’s next to the main train station in Kiev, the country’s capital, is claimed to be the third busiest in the world.

6. It is at the heart of Europe

Put your tea down because this one is a gasper. Within Ukraine is the geographical centre of Europe. OK, it’s not quite as simple as that. A number of locations lay claim to the title and it depends on how you measure Europe, but the small town of Rakhiv in western Ukraine is one such place. The country has a second claimant in Transcarpathia, where an obelisk marks the spot.

7. It’s not The Ukraine

The English-speaking world commonly referred to the country as The Ukraine. That is, until independence in 1991 when the West gradually dropped the definite article. In 1993 the Ukranian government requested that the country be called just Ukraine. US ambassador William Taylor, who knew that addition of the “the” was considered insulting by some Ukrainians, said it implied a disregard for the country’s sovereignty.

8. It gets deep

Arsenalna, a station on Kiev’s Sviatoshynsko-Brovarska line, is the world’s deepest at 105.5 metres below ground.

9. And has a very wide road

Kiev’s main street, Khreshchatyk Street, is often referred to as the shortest yet widest main drag in the world. At only 1.2km long but remarkably broad, the street, which was destroyed in Second World War, is a focal point of the capital.

10. Speaking of Kiev.

No, chicken Kiev does not come from Kiev. It is thought to be a 19 th century French recipe, brought to the east by Russian aristocracy fascinated by French cuisine.

11. It was once a breadbasket

Bread, on the other hand, plays a large part in Ukrainian history. The country was once known as the breadbasket of Europe, owing to its large agricultural industry. This title was to cause the country immense hardship when it became responsible for feeding the Soviet Union under Stalin. Collectivisation and unassailable grain targets were the main causes of the Great Famine, otherwise known as Holodomor, which in 1932 and 1933 killed as many as 7.5 million Ukrainians. The famine is considered a genocidal act by 25 countries, including Ukraine, Australia and Canada.

12. It has hosted plenty of history

Ukraine has played the stage for much destruction during its history. But it was also the host of the Yalta Conference in 1945, where Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt met to discuss the organisation of post-war Europe. Livadia Palace, which hosted the meeting, is open today as a museum. Today, Yalta is part of history once again as it lies on the disputed Crimean peninsula, annexed by Russia in 2014. The Crimea is one of four regions the Foreign Office advises against travel to [Kharkiv, Donetsk and Lugansk are the others].

13. It is home to ghost towns

Another Ukrainian claim to history is Chernobyl, the site of the world’s worst nuclear power plant disaster. The location in northern Ukraine is now the centre of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, established by the USSR soon after the accident in 1986. Within the zones are a number of abandoned towns, most notably Pripyat, that draw interest from all over the world. Tours of the area, including the power plant, are available, at the risk of the traveller. Radiation levels remain dangerously high – read Telegraph Travel's Chris Leadbeater guide on how to visit.

14. And a cafe capital

The city of Lviv is sometimes claimed to have the most cafes in the world per capita. Fiona Duncan, after visiting for Telegraph Travel, said: “Though Livivians of today are known for both their fervent nationalism and for their churchgoing, their city has an easy-going, almost frivolous air, filled with university students, embellished by its frothy confection of Renaissance, Baroque, Belle Epoque and Art Nouveau buildings and scented with aromas from its hundreds of Viennese style coffee houses. We only had to step out from our hotel, the Opera, and stroll with the crowds along Lviv’s central spine, Svobody (Liberty) Avenue, to find out how relaxed the place is.”

15. It invented the gas lamp

Lviv also claims to be the home of the first ever gas lamp. Invented by a local pharmacist in a store called At the Golden Star, today the achievement is remembered by a café called Gasova L’ampa found in the same building.

16. Recognise this?

The Tunnel of Love, excellent Instagram fodder, is found in the forests near the town of Kleven. The rail road is for a private train that provides wood for a local factory.

17. It built a superlative plane

Kiev was the birthplace of the world’s biggest plane, the Antonov An-225 Mriya. It has the largest wingspan of any aircraft, at 88.4 metres and weighs 640,000kg. A brainwave of the Soviet Union, only one was ever made.

18. And has a huge military

Ukraine, which inherited a large nuclear arsenal after the break up of the Soviet Union, has the second largest military in Europe behind Russia.

19. You can ski there

It’s no French Alps, but Ukraine has about four or five ski resorts to shout about, including Bukovel in the Carpathian mountains, with 55km of slopes and 15 lifts.

20. Its capital is a hero

The capital Kiev was given Hero City status by the Soviet Union following its resistance to the Nazis in the Battle of Kiev in 1941. The Germans encircled the city in July of 1941, eventually capturing it in September and taking more than 600,000 soldiers captive. Despite the battle being seen as a huge victory for Hitler, the city was rewarded for its defence with the title of Hero City in 1965.

21. It is big on easter eggs

Ukrainians are pretty big on easter eggs. Less so, stuffing their faces with low-quality chocolate: they favour more intricate designs using wax on ornaments known as pysankas. Different regions of the country have different styles and methods of decoration. The practice was banished by the Soviet Union, but continued in North and South America by Ukrainian immigrants.

22. Its music inspires

George Gershwin’s Summertime was inspired by an old Ukrainian lullaby.

23. It has a mighty Soviet relic

Armed with a 16-metre sword and a great slab of a shield, Mother Motherland clearly isn’t to be messed with. While Communist symbols and street names were outlawed from Ukraine in 2015, Second World War monuments – like this titanium statue in Kiev – were allowed to remain.

Mother Motherland, a suitably imposing 62 metres tall, was built in the 1970s – and now forms part of the Museum of the History of Ukraine in World War II (catchy title). The monument’s fire pit is supposed to hold an eternal flame, but due to funding issues it now only burns on the biggest national holidays.

24. It has a cool coastline

The Black Sea, home to Ukraine’s only coastline, is popular with holidaymakers. The massive lake lacks a tide and the water level never changes.

25. And a surprising claim to political history

Ukraine was home to one of the world’s first ever constitutions, in the form of the Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, written by a Ukrainian Cossack in 1710. It established a democratic standard for the separation of powers in government between the legislative, executive and judiciary branches, an idea perhaps made more famous by Montesquieu’s Spirit of the Laws, which was published in 1748.

Note: The Foreign Office currently advises against all travel to both the Donetsk oblast and Luhansk oblast in the east of the country, as well as the Crimean peninsula to the south. See here for the latest travel advice.


Ukraine's Quest for Europe: History, Geography, Identity

"At least one of the ideological impulses that came out of the events of the Orange Revolution was the idea that Ukraine should be part of Europe" stated Serhii Plokhii, Professor of History, University of Alberta Visiting Professor, Department of History, Harvard University and former Short-Term Scholar, Kennan Institute at a 15 December 2005 Kennan Institute lecture. Ukraine's quest for greater integration with Europe has been linked to politics, ideology, history and geography. Every country in Eastern Europe, including Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary, has viewed itself as a country between East and West. However, according to Plokhii, "Ukraine probably had more right than others to do that given its position on the civilization divide."

Plokhii explained that the issue of membership in the European Union (EU) has become pivotal in Ukrainian politics since the Orange Revolution. When Ukraine was granted market economy status during the ninth EU-Ukraine summit on December 1, 2005, it was considered a victory for Ukraine's President, Viktor Yushchenko, and a partial fulfillment of his 2004 campaign promise to integrate with Europe. However, Ukraine's relationship with the EU has been turbulent since the first years of its independence.

According to Plokhii, when the Baltic States received exclusive consideration for EU membership in 1993, "Ukraine's image was tarnished and it was debated whether Ukraine was a viable project." Some even speculated that Ukraine would simply split into smaller regions. The Agreement on Cooperation and Partnership signed between the EU and Ukraine in 1994 was not scheduled to come into force until 1998, demonstrating the EU's reluctance at the time to deal with Ukraine. Plokhii argued that although the EU has been generally supportive of the development of a pro-European orientation in Ukraine, it is also hesitant to provoke Russia, on which it depends for energy supplies. As a result, Ukraine finds itself in a kind of tug-of-war, where overtures towards Europe or Russia seem to come at the expense of the other.

According to Plokhii, explanations of Ukraine's place in Europe vary between Ukraine as a cultural bridge between East and West, to Ukraine as a quintessentially central European country. In the nineteenth century, history and geography increasingly became a basis for arguments between Ukrainian and Russian intellectuals about Ukraine's European identity. Russian Westernizers, like Vissarion Belinsky, argued that Ukrainian literature was a non-European phenomenon, and that Ukrainian elites would be better served by Russian literature, which Belinsky deemed was closest to Europe in a cultural sense.

Mykhailo Drahomanov, Ukraine's most influential political thinker of the second half of the nineteenth century, countered with the claim that early modern Ukraine, as the heir to Kyivan Rus', was a European nation until it was cut off from Europe by Muscovy in the seventeenth century. He also argued that Ukrainian Cossacks, accustomed to acting within the political and legal system of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, brought ideas of democracy and European legal culture to Muscovy.

In the 1920s, Ukrainian writers like Mykola Khvyliovy argued that a socialist Ukraine must orient its culture toward the West, the true birthplace of Communism. This was countered by Joseph Stalin, who declared that by turning west, Ukraine would be "turning its back not on Russian culture, but on the capital of the world proletarian movement." It was Stalin's vision that was implemented in the USSR, separating Ukrainian culture from Europe for most of the twentieth century.

Plokhii emphasized the importance of continued debate over the European roots of Ukrainian identity, stating: "Europe from the very beginning was essential for the creation of the Ukrainian project." Ukrainian identity has been both denied and asserted with references to Europe, and that dynamic continues today. At the same time, the relationship between Ukraine and Europe cannot be understood without reference to Russia—from its inception, the Ukrainian idea used Europe as a counterbalance to the political and cultural dominance of Russia. In the Ukrainian case, the European idea always had and continues to have a tremendous potential for nation building. According to Plokhii, "There is a new emerging Ukrainian identity that has an idea of Europe at its core, and is inclusive enough to bring together the East and West of Ukraine." The EU is today much more popular in Ukraine than it is in some countries that have already joined, he contended.

According to Plokhii, the ultimate outcome of Ukraine's efforts to integrate into Europe will not depend so much on the timing of Ukraine's membership in the EU, but on the process by which it approaches membership. Evoking President Yushchenko's words, Plokhii remarked that Ukraine should not regard approaching Europe as following an arbitrary set of rules, but as a set of living standards and values. He concluded that the Ukrainians have already included Europe into the core concept of their national identity, and it is time now for Europe to create a vision of itself that includes a prosperous and democratic Ukraine.


6. Ukrainian Cuisine

The traditional Ukrainian diet includes chicken, pork, beef, eggs, fish, and mushrooms. Ukrainians also tend to eat a lot of potatoes, grains, and fresh and pickled vegetables. The Ukrainian cuisine is extremely varied and exciting, with different ethnic minorities and a rich multicultural history bringing a range of different foods to the table.

Nonetheless, popular traditional dishes include varenyky (boiled dumplings with mushrooms, potatoes, sauerkraut, cottage cheese, or cherries) and holubtsi (stuffed cabbage rolls filled with rice, carrots, and meat). The most famous Ukrainian dish is borscht. Whilst many Russians claimed it derived from the motherland, many Ukrainians passionately believe they are the founders of this dish. It consists of soup made from beetroot, cabbage, and potato true borscht also contains meat, most commonly, pork.

Famous Ukrainian drinks are Lviv beer, horilka (vodka) with pepper, medovukha – horilka with honey, Zakarpattya wine, and Lviv coffee. Ukrainians prepare very tasty desserts: cheesecake (syrnyk), poppycake (makivnyk), honeycake (medivnyk), and many many others.

You must try Ukrainian cuisine on your holiday to Ukraine! Explore our gastronomic tours to find something that interests you.


Grammar

They saved the ancient endings of dative and locative cases of plural masculine adjectives:

  • син і м – синам
    to sons
  • брат і м – братам
    to brothers
  • на син о х – на синах
    on sons
  • на брат і х – на братах
    on brothers

Also instead of dative and instrumental cases of singular pronouns мені, тобі, собі, мене, тебе, себе people in these lands say мі, ми, ті, ти, си .

  • Д а йте ми г у сочку. – Дайте мені гусочку.
    Give me a duckling.
  • Він пом і г ті. – Він допоміг тобі.
    He has helped you.

Future forms are numerous:

  • б у ду чит а ти
  • б у ду чит а в
  • чит а тиму
  • му чит а ти
    I will read.


Destination Ukraine, a Nations Online profile of the country in Eastern Europe.

The largest country entirely within Europe has a coastline at the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov in the southeast. Ukraine borders Russia in the northeast and east, Belarus in the northwest, Poland, and Slovakia in the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest.

The country covers an area of 600,000 km² it is about twice the size of Italy or slightly smaller than the US state of Texas.

Ukraine's landscape consists mainly of plains and plateaus, only the Carpathian mountains in the west reach 2,061 m (6,760 ft.) at Mount Hoverla (Hora Hoverla), the highest peak in the country.

The country has a population of 41.6 million people (in 2020), the capital and largest city is Kiev. Spoken languages are Ukrainian Russian is widely spoken, especially in the eastern and southern parts of the country.

Background:
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe and the second-largest country in Europe after Russia. The Crimean Autonomous Republic - encompassing the Crimean Peninsula, or Crimea, in the south was part of Ukraine but is now occupied by Russia.

The country is rich in natural resources, Ukraine has been fought over and subjugated for centuries. Its 20th-century struggle for liberty is not yet complete. Short-lived independence from Russia (1917-1920) was followed by brutal Soviet rule that engineered two artificial famines (1921-22 and Holodomor 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. [1] In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for some 7 million more deaths.

Although independence was achieved with the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, true freedom remains difficult to grasp as many of the former Soviet elites remain deeply rooted and block efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil rights.


Official Name:
Ukrayina
int'l form: Ukraine
formerly: Carpathian Ukraine, Ukrainian Socialists Soviet Republic.

Time:
Local Time = UTC +2h
Actual Time: Mon-June-21 21:21
Daylight Saving Time (DST) March - October (UTC +3)

Other Cities:
Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Kharkiv, Lviv, Odesa

Government:
Type: Presidential-parliamentary.
Independence: August 24, 1991.
Constitution: First post-Soviet constitution adopted June 28, 1996.

Geography:
Location: Eastern Europe north of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, bordered by Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Russia, and Belarus.
Area: 603,000 km² (233,100 sq mi)
Terrain: mostly flat 95% of lands are plains and 5% are mountainous.

Climate: two climatic zones: moderate and subtropical at the southern shore of Crimea.

People:
Nationality: Ukrainian(s)
Population: 41.6 million (2020)
Ethnic Groups: Ukrainians, Russians, Belarusians, Moldovans, Hungarians, Bulgarians, Jews, Poles, Crimean Tatars, and other groups.
Religions: Ukrainian Orthodoxy, Ukrainian Greek Catholicism, Judaism, Roman Catholicism, Islam
Languages: Ukrainian (official), Russian, others
Literacy: 98%

Agriculture products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables, beef, and milk.

Natural resources: oil, natural gas, manganese, coal, iron ore, mercury, nickel, kaolin, magnesium, titanium, graphite, sulfur, and salt.

Industries: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, and food processing.

Exports - commodities: ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, and transport equipment, foodstuffs.

Exports - partners: Russia 9%, China 8%, Germany 6%, Poland 6%, Italy 5%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities: energy, machinery and equipment, chemicals.

Imports - partners: China 13%, Russia 12%, Germany 10%, Poland 9%, Belarus 7% (2019)

(Source: Embassy of Ukraine and others)

Official Sites of Ukraine



View of the building that houses the Verkhovna Rada, the Ukrainian national parliament in Kyiv.
Image: Vadim Chuprina


Political System of Ukraine
Ukraine is a semi-presidential republic. The head of state and commander-in-chief is the president. The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. Ukraine's legislative branch is its unicameral parliament, the Verkhovna Rada. The head of the government is the prime minister.

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Verkhovna Rada - Parliament of Ukraine
The Supreme Council of Ukraine (Verkhovna Rada) is Ukraine's unicameral parliament.

Diplomatic Missions
Mission of Ukraine to the UN
Ukraine's Permanent Mission to the United Nations.
Embassy of Ukraine
Ottawa, Canada
Embassy of Ukraine
Washington D.C.



Map of Ukraine (click map to enlarge)
Image: © nationsonline.org

Administrative Map of Ukraine
Map showing the administrative divisions of Ukraine.
Map of Ukraine
Political Map of Ukraine.

Google Earth Ukraine
Searchable map and satellite view of Ukraine.
Map of Crimea
Map of the Crimean peninsula.
Google Earth Crimea peninsula
Searchable map and satellite view of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.


News from Ukraine

National media have adopted a united patriotic agenda following the Russian annexation of Crimea and the armed conflict in the east. Ukraine has banned relays of leading Russian TVs in turn, areas under Russian or separatist control have seen Pro-Kiev outlets silenced. [BBC]


Ukraine crisis media center
Ukraine Crisis Media Center provides the world community with up-to-date information on events in Ukraine.

KP
Kiev based newspaper. (in Russian)

Svoboda
Svoboda is the oldest existing Ukrainian newspaper. (in Ukrainian)

The Day
Ukrainian daily newspaper.

The Ukrainian Weekly
English-language newspaper of the Ukrainian diaspora in the US.

UNIAN
News from and about Ukraine.

Ukrinform
Ukrainian National News Agency.

Zerkalo Nedeli
ZN is a political weekly. (in Ukrainian and Russian)

Ukraine National Palace of Arts in Kiev.
Image: Konstantin Burkut

Arts & Culture

Art Palace
National Palace of Arts "Ukraina".

National Museum of the History of Ukraine
The museum showcases Ukraine's history from antiquity to the present day. (in Ukrainian)

National Art Museum of Ukraine
The museum in Kiev is dedicated to Ukrainian art.

Business & Economy of Ukraine



View on a part of the harbor of Odessa it is the largest Ukrainian seaport and one of the largest ports in the Black Sea.
Image: Boris Mavlyutov


Ukraine economy
Besides Russia, the Ukrainian Republic was the most important component of the economy of the former Soviet Union. Today, Ukraine's economy is based on a multi-sectoral industry, agriculture, and services. Ukraine has made significant progress on reforms designed to make the country prosperous, democratic, and transparent, including the creation of a national anti-corruption agency, and an overhaul of the banking sector.

Ukrainian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
The Ukrainian Chamber is also home to the Industry International Commercial Arbitration Court and the Maritime Arbitration Commission.

Kherson Chamber of Commerce and Industry
The Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Kherson, a city in southern Ukraine


Ukrainian companies
Antonov
Ukrainian aircraft manufacturing and services company.

DTEK
One of the energy companies owned by SCM Holdings, a conglomerate of various companies from coal mining to power generation.

Metinvest
Iron ore raw materials and steel.

Naftogaz
The national oil and gas company of Ukraine.
Ukrnafta
A leader in Ukraine’s oil industry.

ATB-Market
Retail shops.
Fozzy Group
Retail stores.
Kernel
Exporter of sunflower oil and a major supplier of agricultural products.

Ukraine International Airlines
Ukraine's flag carrier and the largest airline operates direct flights to most major cities in Europe.

DART Ukrainian Airlines
Ukrainian airline based in Kiev ceased operations in April 2018.

Airport
International State airport Boryspil
Ukraine's international airport in Kiev.

Port
Odessa Sea Port Authority
One of the largest seaports at the Black Sea consists of several harbors, a passenger terminal, grain and oil terminals, and container loading quays.

Space
National Space Agency of Ukraine
Development of state policy concepts in the sphere of research and peaceful uses of space, as well as in the interests of national security.



Pechersk Lavra, the Monastery of the Caves in Kiev is a historic Orthodox Christian monastery and a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Image: Falin

Destination Ukraine - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Ukraine:
Lviv, the cultural capital of Ukraine Odessa, the port on the Black Sea Kiev and the Kyiv region Volyn region, Zakarpattya region, Ivano-Frankivsk region, Poltava region, Kharkiv region


Travel to Ukraine
Tourism information by the US Ukraine Foundation.

Wikivoyage: Ukraine
The free worldwide travel guide, a sister site of Wikipedia for sightseeing, activities, cuisine, and accommodation around the world.

Chornobyl Exclusion Zone
Businessinsider article about tourism to Ukraine's worst nuclear disaster.

Full-Day Tour of Chernobyl and Prypiat from Kyiv
Tripadvisor's tour to Chernobyl and Prypiat from Kyiv.

Ukraine
General facts about Ukraine.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites Ukraine



The wooden Holy Trinity Church was built in a suburb of Zhovkva, Ukraine, in 1720. The church is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Wooden Tserkvas of the Carpathian Region in Poland and Ukraine.
Image: Haidamac


UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Ukraine
There are seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Ukraine and seventeen sites on the Tentative List (see the List)


Ancient City of Tauric Chersonese and its Chora
The remains of an ancient Greek colony, also known as Chersonesus. The city was founded in the 5th century BC by Dorian Greeks on the Heraclean Peninsula in south-west Crimea on the shores of the Black Sea.


L'viv – the Ensemble of the Historic Centre
The city of L'viv (Lviv) was founded in the late Middle Ages it was a flourishing administrative, religious, and commercial center for several centuries. The historical heart of the city, with its old buildings and cobblestone streets, survived Soviet and German occupations during World War II largely unscathed. Today it is the largest city in western Ukraine.


Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans
The Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans (archbishops) in Chernivtsi (formerly Czernowitz), represents 19th-century historicist architecture styles built by Czech architect Josef Hlavka. The building complex is now part of Chernivtsi University.


Wooden Tserkvas of the Carpathian Region in Poland and Ukraine
The World Heritage Site includes sixteen wooden tserkvas (Orthodox and some Eastern Catholic churches) within the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathian mountain region of Central Europe.



The UNESCO World Heritage Site Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans (archbishops) in the city of Chernivtsi is now part of Chernivtsi University.
Image: Posterrr


Ivan Franko National University of L'viv
Oldest continuously operating university in Ukraine, founded in 1661.

Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute
The Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, KPI, is a leading university in the country.

Kharkiv National University
A major university in the city of Kharkiv, Ukraine.

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
KNU is an institution of higher education in the capital of Ukraine Kiev.

Sumy State University
Sumy State University (SSU) is situated in Sumy city in North-East of Ukraine and is a leading higher education establishment of the region.

University of Chernivtsi
The public university in the City of Chernivtsi in western Ukraine is one of the leading Ukrainian institutions for higher education it was founded in 1875.

Uzhgorod National University
Uzhhorod university was founded on 18 October 1945.



A rapeseed field in Odessa oblast in Ukraine. The Ukrainian flag is based on views like this.
Image: Heulwolf

Chernobyl disaster
Wikipedia article about the catastrophic nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986.

National Parks of Ukraine
Wikipedia list of national parks in Ukraine.

Environment. People. Law
EPL is a public interest environmental law organization.

Green Energy Portal: Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
Portal with links to operational environmental NGOs in Ukraine.

The National Ecological Centre of Ukraine
NECU brings together individuals for joint actions to protect the environment.

NGO Working Group on climate change
A network of 16 non-governmental and non-profits environmental organizations. (in Ukrainian)

Ukraine Nature Conservation Society
The primary purpose of Ukrpryroda, the Ukrainian Society for Nature Conservation, is to promote the formation of civil eco-society.



Ukraine's grasslands landscape of the Pontic–Caspian steppe.
Image: Uncle Sasha



Kamianets Podilskyi Castle in the historic city of Kamianets-Podilskyi on the Smotrych River in western Ukraine.
Image: Håkan Henriksson


History of Ukraine
Page about Ukraine's history from the oldest period of Ukrainian history to independence.

History of Ukraine - Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Comprehensive article from Ukraine's earliest history to independence.

Ukraine profile - Timeline
Ukraine history timeline of key events by the BBC.

History of Ukraine
Wikipedia pages related to the history of Ukraine.

Trypillia culture (Trypil'ska kultura)
Ukraine's Neolithic culture.

Selected country profiles of Ukraine published by international organizations.

Amnesty International: Ukraine
Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

BBC Country Profile: Ukraine
Country profiles by the British public service broadcaster.

BTI Transformation Index Ukraine
Ukraine Country Report 2020 by Bertelsmann Stiftung.

Freedom House: Ukraine
The U.S. government-funded non-profit organization whose goal is to promote liberal democracies worldwide.

GlobalEDGE: Ukraine
Ukraine ranking by the Global business knowledge portal.

The Heritage Foundation: Ukraine
Index of Economic Freedom by The Heritage Foundation, an American conservative think tank.

Human Rights Watch: Ukraine
HRW conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

OEC: Ukraine
The Observatory of Economic Complexity provides the latest international trade data.

Reporters Without Borders: Ukraine
RSF (Reporters sans frontières) is an international NGO that defends and promotes media freedom.


Educational site geography, world history and the history of Ukraine.

On this site are educational materials on geography, world history and the history of Ukraine for school students. Materials not the basis for the study of relevant disciplines, but is rather a good addition to the main program of secondary schools that are not inferior to the main program of the depth and scope of material that is taught.

The nature of the material on world history and the history of Ukraine chronologically consistent and closely linked to the geographical study that provides information concise and comprehensive nature of the study. While studying, you not only get the opportunity to realize a picture of the events described, but also to establish the relationship between what is happening and to put forward their hypothesis and refutation.

The original language of most materials - Ukrainian, some - Russian. All materials resulting from translations, set in four languages: Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian and English. Translated into the language was made automatically and is not perfect. Translated into English, in general, is poor. Unfortunately, to date, the team qualified interpreter resources.

Currently on the site are all in the content of these courses, video files and also quizzes available in all four languages.

Currently, there are at breaking material to "outline" and "textbook".

"Compendium" contains the main content of the site, all its pages are equally stylized, almost all the books are maps and supporting images (photographs and drawings). Images are for better learning by increasing student interest - they help provide the described topic revive images of historical figures, mentally move us in space and time.

"Textbook" - part of the site, which contained basic textbooks on geography, world history and the history of Ukraine. Most of these materials are not checked by the moderator.