Interior Gate, Butrint

Palace of Versailles, France (c.1624-98)

The Palace of Versailles (built c.1624-98), a magnificent example of French Baroque architecture, is the most famous royal chateau in France. The gigantic scale of Versailles exemplifies the architectural theme of 'creation by division' - a series of simple repetitions rhythmically marked off by the repetition of the large windows - which expresses the fundamental values of Baroque art and in which the focal point of the interior, as well as of the entire building, is the king's bed. Among its celebrated architectural designs is the Hall of Mirrors (Galerie des Glaces), which is one of the most famous rooms in the world. Located some 20 kilometres southwest of Paris, and set amidst extensive grounds, the palace and its decoration stimulated a mini-renaissance of interior design, as well as decorative art, during the 17th and 18th centuries. Indeed, French decorative art during the period 1640-1792 - notably French Furniture - is synonymous with the French Kings Louis Quatorze (XIV), Louis Quinze (XV) and Louis Seize (XVI), after whom it is named. The many French designers and craftsmen who contributed to Versailles' architecture, furnishings and objets d'art, included Louis Le Vau, Jules Hardouin Mansart, Andre le Notre, Charles Le Brun, Jean Berain the Elder, Andre-Charles Boulle, Charles Cressent, Jean-Baptiste Oudry, Francois Lemoyne, and Juste-Aurele Meissonnier, among others. From 1682 to the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789, the Palace of Versailles housed the King and the entire French royal court, a total of some 3,000 residents, making it a symbol of the absolutism and decadence of the Ancien Regime in general, and the French monarchy in particular. The royal chateau itself is not the only building complex in the grounds, which also include five chapels, plus the Grand Trianon (1687-88), the Pavilion Francais (1749), and the Petit Trianon (1762-8) as well as 800 hectares of gardens, landscaped in the classic French Garden style.

In 1624 - following in the footsteps of Francis I (reigned 1515-47) who converted a medieval hunting lodge into a magnificent chateau, establishing the Fontainebleau School in the process - King Louis XIII (reigned 1610-43) ordered the building of a hunting lodge on land near the village of Versailles. This took the form of a small structure, designed by Philibert Le Roy, made of stone and red brick. In 1632, the first enlargements were made, however, it wasn't until the reign of Louis XIV that the lodge was transformed into one of the largest palaces in the world.

To begin with (c.1661), Baroque architects under the direction of chief designer Louis Le Vau (1612-70), the garden designer Andre le Notre (1613-1700) and arts supremo Charles Le Brun (1619-90), converted the stone and brick lodge into a 3-storey chateau complete with an impressive black-and-white marble courtyard, complete with columns and wrought-iron balconies. It was given a flat roof and two new wings, containing apartments for the king and queen, and was known as Marble Court.

Thereafter, in a series of four main building campaigns - stage one (1664�), stage two (1669�) stage three (1678�) and stage four (1699�) - the chateau was enveloped in a new and larger palatial complex, under the supervision of architect Jules Hardouin Mansart (1646-1708), great-nephew of the famous royal architect Francois Mansart (1598-1666), inventor of the widely used 'mansard roof'. This expansion was designed to give effect to Louis XIV's decision to rehouse the entire royal court at Versailles (which duly occurred in 1682), in order to exercise greater control over his nobles, and distance the government from the Paris mob. By centralizing all government offices at the Palace, and by obliging his nobles to spend a set amount of time there, his aim was to create an all-powerful, absolute monarchy.

Architecture Highlights

A court of 3,000 residents, including the king and queen, members of the royal family, government ministers, aristocrats, diplomats, civil servants and the like, required a suitably grand building, and no expense was spared. Indeed, the new complex became the apogee of palace architecture. Surrounded by 800 hectares of immaculate gardens, with beautiful vistas, fountains and statues, the palace contained several symmetrical suites of apartments for the public and private use of the king and queen, as well as numerous other architectural highlights.

These included The Hall of Mirrors (1678-90) - the central gallery of the Palace - which comprised 17 mirror-clad arches reflecting the 17 windows. A total of 357 mirrors were used in its decoration. The ornamentations - the canvases along the ceiling that celebrate the apotheosis of the king, the polychrome marbles, the gilt bronzes -were organized by Le Brun, and in this undertaking he can be said to have reached the peak of the expressive possibilities of French Baroque art.

Another famous room is the Royal Opera of Versailles, designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel (1698-82), which can seat up to 1200 guests. It was one of the earliest expressions of the Louis XVI style. Other important reception rooms, included: the Salons of Hercules, Diane, Mars, Mercury, Apollo, Jupiter, Saturn and Venus, all named after Roman gods and goddesses. The rooms were decorated with mural painting, much of it by Le Brun, who was strongly influenced by the Italian tradition of architectural Baroque painting, as exemplified by the quadratura illusionism of Pietro da Cortona (1596-1669) at the Pitti Palace in Florence.

Additional building works as well as alterations to the gardens, were instigated by both Louis XV and Louis XVI, but no major changes took place.

Interior Design and Decoration

The Palace of Versailles's interior designwork and decoration was legendary in its range, quality and expense. It featured the finest furniture and furnishings, beautiful ceramic art including Sevres porcelain, as well as tapestry art and small-scale bronze sculpture. The initial salons and the Hall of Mirrors even contained lavish displays of silver table pieces, gueridons and other furniture, though these were later melted down to finance further military campaigns. Not surprisingly, Louis XIV's astronomical expenditure stimulated a huge expansion of French crafts and specialist applied art, led directly to the emergence of Rococo art (dominated by France), and created an impetus in French painting and sculpture that paved the way for Paris to become the arts capital of the world.

The royal palace's close relationship to its park was of fundamental importance, for the park, exactly like the palace itself, was made to serve the ceremonial and celebratory requirements of the king. Designed for the amusements of the court, the park constitutes the natural and ideal backdrop for endless festivities based on the close relationship - typical of the baroque - between celebration and architecture, between the ephemeral and the permanent. From the original concept, the palace was seen as the centre of an urbanistic system and a reworking of the landscape.

Such were the aesthetics and the goal of Andre Le Notre, inventor of the 'French' garden, who began work at Versailles in 1662. Although it maintains the symmetry of Italian tradition, the park of Versailles has a network of axial pathways leading off to the horizon. These paths are cadenced by rond-points, pavilions, arboreal architecture, wider areas that suddenly appear ahead, stairways, terraces, ponds, and monumental fountains that expand the visual perception of space and add a sense of wonder. The gardens at Versailles contain several different types of statue, including works by sculptors like: Francois Girardon (Apollo Tended by Nymphs of Thetis) Jean Baptiste Tuby (Fountain of Apollo) Antoine Coysevox (portraits of Louis XIV and Le Brun) Gaspard Marsy (Fountain of Bacchus or the "Island of Autumn") among others.

Versailles was not created merely to serve as a refuge and place of amusement: its innovative organization of space was also meant to be symbolic of the new order of the state. The park's arrangement and its iconographic themes interpret the symbolic meaning of royal order in the world. The Palace of Versailles continued to influence late-18th century architecture and beyond, although first it had to survive the iconoclasm of the French Revolution.

The Age of Versailles

In all the arts, the age of Louis XIV was marked by brilliance and splendour. Art was organized by the State for the purpose of increasing the glory of France through the figure of Louis, the Sun King, and the decoration of his private and public buildings. Although such close control of art often results in staleness, official French art of the second half of the seventeenth century is characterized by supreme grandeur and self-confidence.

Ever since the invasion of Italy by Charles VIII in 1494, France had wished to imitate the art of the Italian Renaissance, and the influence of Italians was tremendous throughout the sixteenth century. The palace of Fontainebleau, for instance, was decorated by Italians like Francesco Primaticcio (1504-70), Rosso Fiorentino (1494-1540) and Benvenuto Cellini (1500-71) from 1530 onwards, and Italian architects provided designs which greatly influenced native architects. Gradually, from about 1560, France developed a school of architects of her own, but in painting and sculpture foreign artists continued to be used until well into the seventeenth century. French artists tended to go to Italy to be trained and several chose to remain there throughout their careers, including Claude Lorrain (1600-82) and Nicholas Poussin (1594-1665), now considered the greatest French artists of the age.

In 1627, the painter Simon Vouet (1590-1649) returned to France from Italy, bringing with him a simplified and less extravagant version of the Italian Baroque style. He trained the artists of the next generation, including Eustache LeSueur (1616-55) and Charles LeBrun (1619-90). LeBrun became virtual dictator of official art under Louis XIV, his work reflecting the pomp and formality of court life. Poussin had met with less success his visit to Paris in 1640-42 to work for the Crown was an unhappy one, because his austere and thoughtful small-scale paintings could not rival the fashion for Baroque.

By this time Poussin had turned to Christian and classical subjects, in which he explored the nature of human emotion in clear, simple compositions. His belief was that painting should aim to reveal universal truths about Life and Mankind. In his style and philosophical outlook, this artist can be compared with the two great tragic dramatists of the period, Pierre Corneille (1606-84) and Jean Racine (1639-99).

Arts under the Sun King

Louis XIV came to the throne in 1643 at the age of four. His chief minister was at first Mazarin, but at his death in 1661 Louis virtually took over the government of the country himself. Louis is the supreme example of the absolute monarch: his conviction of his divine authority was symbolized in his sun emblem, seen everywhere in the decoration of his palace at Versailles. His reign saw France preeminent in Europe its political power and artistic sophistication was reflected in the court which Louis conducted with rigid formality and ceremony.

A few powerful ministers were retained by Louis, among them Colbert, who was responsible for organizing the arts. During this period France was blessed with academies of architecture, music, inscriptions and dance. The Academy of Painting and Sculpture, founded in 1648, came under the control of Colbert in 1661: he increased its power and made it more exclusive. The idea of the academy was Italian, and took over from the medieval guild-system, with its period of apprenticeship leading up to the production of a 'masterpiece', after which the apprentice became a full member. Colbert established a similar system. Artists were taught the 'official' style if they followed it in their own work, they were selected for employment by the State, whether as painters, sculptors, jewellers or joiners.

The 'approved' style of painting during the age of Louis XIV was a modified version of Italian Baroque. Architecture revealed the same influences, seen at work in the scheme to reconstruct the Louvre, the Paris seat of the French kings. The conversion of the building from a medieval castle into a modern palace progressed slowly from 1546 until its completion in 1674 by a team of designers: LeBrun, LeVau and Perrault. Colbert, in his position as Director of Buildings, invited plans for the East Front from leading French architects. Those which were submitted were rejected on various grounds and, finally, plans were sought from the great Bernini (1598-1680), the master of the Italian Baroque.

In all, Bernini submitted three designs, which were each judged to be out of character with the rest of the building. Bernini's visit to Paris, where he roused the anger of French artists and architects by his low opinion of their work, led to his third and final design being rejected - and with it the full extravagance of Italian Baroque. The East Front as erected still owed something to his plans, being restrained yet festive, but it complements the earlier sections of the building, rather than belittling them, as all Bernini's designs tended to do.

Versailles Palace - Symbol of Splendour

Members of the same team were employed in the most ambitious architectural scheme of the age - the remodelling of Versailles. Versailles began life as a hunting lodge of very moderate size, the king's private refuge, but was reincarnated as a palace in 1661 to house the entire French court. Its first architect was Louis LeVau (1612-70), who apart from collaborating on the Louvre had designed the great chateau of Vaux-le Vicomte for Fouquet, Louis' Minister of Finance. LeBrun as decorator and LeNotre, a garden designer, had also worked on the chateau. When Fouquet was jailed for embezzlement in 1661 the entire team was re-employed at Versailles.

Today, we can only appreciate LeVau's remodelling of Versailles through prints, for his work was destroyed (from 1678 onwards) by Jules-Hardouin Mansart, who was commissioned to extend the garden front of the building to a length of 402 metres (1,319 ft). On such a scale as this the grandeur verges on monotony.

Mansart's most famous contribution to the interior of the palace is the Hall of Mirrors (1678-84). The mirrors - an expensive commodity used to extravagant profusion - are interspersed by pilasters of green marble gilded trophies sit on the richly decorated cornice (the projecting ornamental moulding along the top of a wall) and the vaulted ceiling is decorated with paintings by LeBrun. The same qualities of immense scale, colour, richness, as well as the use of expensive materials are to be seen in the park, where LeNotre was aided by armies of contractors and labourers. Water and fountains (with complicated pumping mechanisms), radiating avenues and parterres (ornamental patterns of flower beds) are all important features in the total effect of order and formality.

In the plan of the scheme as a whole, the authority of the palace seems to radiate outwards to control its surroundings. In the use of Baroque planning principles which this scheme reveals, France discovered a way of expressing her European supremacy.

The furnishing of rooms as numerous and large as those created in palaces like Versailles required a definite organization of the decorative arts. Again, it was Colbert who provided the answer. In 1667 he created the Crown Furniture Works at Gobelins just as, three years previously, he had given the factory at Beauvais the title of Royal Tapestry Works. The Gobelin family business, founded 200 years before, had in 1662 been taken over for the Crown by Colbert, who declared that henceforth art would serve the King.

The factory at Gobelins, with Charles LeBrun as its artistic director, was to give a home to "..painters, master-weavers of high-warp tapestry, founders, engravers, gem-cutters, joiners in oak and other woods, dyers, and other skilled workers in all sorts of arts and crafts.."

The furniture produced during this period was heavy (although rarely as heavy as the suite of solid silver made for the King's study - soon melted down to help military expenses). Marquetry (inlaid work of various coloured woods) and applied decorations in gilt bronze were particularly prized. Curves and scrolls, allegorical and antique motifs were often used. The walls would often be hung with tapestries, which took much longer to make than paintings of similar size, and which might be enriched by gold and silver threads. Carpets woven at Aubusson or Savonnerie would decorate the floors of the palaces.

A style of such magnificence could not survive either the decline in France's fortunes or the death of the Sun King in 1715. The pomp of this age was succeeded by the lightness and pastel gaiety of the eighteenth century. In architecture and the decorative arts as in painting and sculpture the new style, known as Rococo, would rule until challenged by Neoclassical aethetics after the mid-century.

French Revolution and Later

During this period, during which an enormous amount of French artworks and objets d'art were looted and desecrated, the Palace of Versailles suffered its own share of vandalism and theft. Eventually the government of the Republic decreed it should become a repository of valuable artworks confiscated from the monarchy, and a museum was established at the Palace, only to be closed and its works dispersed not long afterwards. It wasn't until the appointment of Pierre de Nolhac as curator of the Palace of Versailles in 1892, that attempts were made to restore the palace to something approaching its condition before the Revolution. However, no comprehensive repair and conservation work was completed until the 1950s, when Gerald van der Kemp was appointed chief conservator (1952-80). Today, the Palace of Versailles is an international tourist attraction and a major monument of French culture during the Ancien Regime.

Principal Architects and Designers

Of the many French designers who contributed to the Palace of Versailles, the leading figures included Louis Le Vau, Jules Hardouin Mansart, and Charles Le Brun.

First architect to King Louis XIV and superintendent of royal constructions, Louis Le Vau performed an important role in the evolution of 17th-century French architecture. His training period included an important trip to Italy with visits to Genoa and Rome in 1650 he began working for the French crown, building the pavilions of the king and queen at Vincennes, enlarging the church of St Sulpice, and participating in the completion of the Louvre. One of his major works was the chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte, constructed in only five years (1656-61) for the finance minister Nicolas Fouquet. He then began work on the royal palace of Versailles, where he designed an enlargement of the original structure built in 1623 for Louis XIII, working together with Le Brun and Le Notre, who had worked with him at Vaux-le-Vicomte. Le Vau was responsible for the central nucleus of the palace, the two wings of the courtyard, the cour d'honneur, where the roads from Paris converge, the garden facade, and the unusual adoption of the flat 'Italian-style' roof, perhaps derived from Bernini's proposed plan for the Louvre. In addition, he was responsible for the earliest major scheme of chinoiserie decoration in interior design - which appears in the Trianon de Porcelaine (1670). The selection of Le Vau, who had already made the revolutionary chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte, reveals the desire for a structure with close ties to the surrounding nature as in the concept of 'between court and garden', exemplified by the planning of an axial system and the arrangement of the park.

Jules Hardouin Mansart (1646-1708)

Great-nephew of Francois Mansart, Louis XIII's famous architect, with whom a new classical period began in France, Jules Hardouin Mansart was the favourite of Louis XIV, who named him superintendent of royal constructions. He had been a pupil of his uncle, from whom he derived the sobriety of external decoration and the correctness of proportions. His major work was the royal palace at Versailles, in which he brought to conclusion the design by Le Vau to rework the small existing structure and to enlarge the palace with later structures, including most especially the Galerie des Glaces, the Grand Trianon, and the chapel. Architect and urban planner, Mansart designed Place Vendome, formerly Place Louis-le-Grand, but his greatest work was the Dome des Invalides, a church with a Greek-cross layout crowned by a dome connected to the facade, in which he did away with excesses of decoration, preferring combinations of volumes and lines.

Charles Le Brun (1619-90)

The leading artist-politician of the 17th century, Charles Le Brun was a pupil of Simon Vouet before gaining the patronage of Cardinal Richelieu in 1641. He became the founder and director of the French Academy, after which he supervised the decorations for Vaux-le-Vicomte, for Minister Fouquet. After Fouquet's fall, Le Brun's talents were recognized by the powerful Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619�), finance minister to Louis XIV, who made him director of the Gobelins tapestry factory and chief painter to the king. Appointed a sort of creative overseer at the Palace, Le Brun had direct responsibility for painting the Hall of Mirrors, as well as the Salons de la Guerre and de la Paix.

Andre Le Notre (1613-1700)

The first great garden architect, Le Notre was the creator of the so-called French garden, characterized by axial arrangements leading to unbroken vistas with the space of the garden defined by parterres of flowers and hedges, bodies of water, canals, and fountains. His most famous works are the park of the royal Palace of Versailles (begun 1661), that of Vaux-le-Vicomte (1655-61) and that of the chateau of Chantilly.

• For the chronology of French interior design during the reign of Louis XIV, see: History of Art Timeline.
• For information about painting in France, see: Homepage.

The Ferry Building Story

We are very committed to the artisan food community and to fostering the values of that community here at the Ferry Building. We envision the Ferry Building Marketplace as a vibrant gathering of local farmers, artisan producers, and independently owned and operated food businesses and the customers they serve. We’ve created a community of like-minded people to support our mission and key goals.

Showcase small regional producers that practice traditional farming or production techniques.

Promote the Bay Area's vast ethnic diversity and serve as an incubator for artisan producers.

Provide a central location for the promotion of the world-class food and wine producing regions of Northern California.

Collaborate with local transit authorities to build strong regional ties to the Ferry Building.

Operate as a community gathering-place for the celebration of local culture and cuisine.

Ferry Building History

What makes the Ferry Building San Francisco’s most famous landmark? First is its strategic location at the foot of Market Street --- on the western edge of the continent, and at the center of the city’s financial, banking and transportation district. Second is its history as the primary portal of the city. Third, is the dramatic clock tower that has been the icon of the San Francisco waterfront for more than a 100 years.

Opening in 1898, the Ferry Building became the transportation focal point for anyone arriving by train. From the Gold Rush until the 1930s, arrival by ferryboat became the only way travelers and commuters – except those coming from the Peninsula – could reach the city. Passengers off the boats passed through an elegant two-story public area with repeating interior arches and overhead skylights. At its peak, as many as 50,000 people a day commuted by ferry.

The opening of the Bay Bridge and Golden Gate Bridge, along with mass use of the automobile, rendered the daily commute by ferryboat obsolete. By the 1950’s, the Ferry Building was used very little. The historic interior of the Ferry Building structure was lost in 1955, when much of the building was converted to standard office space. The double-deck Embarcadero Freeway also cast its shadow for 35 years. until the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake.

In March 2003, the landmark San Francisco Ferry Building reopened to the public after an extensive four-year restoration. The Ferry Building Marketplace -- a world class public food market -- is organized along a dramatic indoor street, the Nave. Today ferry terminals operate at Larkspur, Sausalito, Vallejo, and Alameda with plans for continuing network improvements and expansion.

Interior of Heidelberg Castle

The internal section of the castle consists of rooms of modest size and decorations. Most of these decorated rooms are comprised within the Friedrick Building.

Heidelberg Castle Interior

Interior Coorridor of the Castle

Interior of Heidelberg Castle

Interior of the Church at Heidelberg Castle


The Victorian architectural period in America lasted from approximately 1835 to 1900, according to the website Victorian Station. Pre-Civil War Victorian structures were more simple in style than the elaborate post-war structures that sometimes combined several architectural styles such as Queen Anne, Italianate and Second Empire. The use of more vibrant colors also occurred in the latter part of 19th century. Richly colored interiors and exteriors with multicolored trims replaced the white and beige tones of earlier homes.

Can You Cut a Door in Half to Create a Half Door?

The beauty of half doors is that the concept allows you to benefit from two different door styles with a single unit.

Given the complexity of half doors and the fact that they often have to be custom ordered, they can be a bit pricier than other door designs. However, it is possible to cut a factory door in half horizontally to create a half door. Being able to make your own Dutch door could be incredibly helpful for interior doors (and can serve as an excellent baby gate on nurseries) where you may not want to pay for a brand new door. But, before you do, there are some essential things to keep in mind.

For starters, consider whether you want your half door as an exterior or interior door. Choosing to DIY a double hung door is much easier with an interior door. Exterior doors will require additional weatherproofing to keep out elements like wind and water. Dutch doors as entry doors also require additional security measures in comparison to their interior counterparts.

Secondly, you’ll want to consider two important things about the door that you will be cutting. First, you want to think about the panels in your existing door design. You’ll want your horizontal cut to work with the existing panels. Having a break in your panels too high or too low can create an awkward vibe or make using it uncomfortable. You will also want to consider whether you are working with a door slab or if you already have holes for the doorknob in the slab. You’ll want the doorknob to be on the bottom portion of the door. Again, this could make the door awkward to use depending on where it is located, so be sure to confirm that your existing door will work.

It’s also important to consider the material of your existing door. To DIY a half door, your best option is a solid door made of wood. While it is possible with a hollow-core, aluminum, or steel door, it can get a bit more complicated. You’ll also need to make sure you use the right tools, as you will need a special metal cutting blade to get a smooth edge.

Next, it’s important to remember that half doors require special hardware. Most stock doors come with two factory hinges. For the top half of the door to securely swing separately from the bottom half, you’ll need to make sure you have at least four hinges that can support the weight of your door. You will also need a latch to secure the top and bottom halves together into a single panel as needed. If you are working on an exterior door, you’ll need to add an extra deadbolt to the upper portion of the door for extra security. You'll keep the doorknob and lock on the lower half of the door. Also, be sure to include a latching mechanism for the top half to keep fingers from getting pinched between the two halves should the top swing shut. You can often find all of the hardware you will need in a kit, helping simplify the process a bit.

Also, keep your vision for the finished product in mind. If you want half glass doors, consider working with a manufacturer, like Rustica, that can customize your door design while matching your exact specifications. If, on the other hand, you are working with a solid door and are comfortable with power tools, then DIY may be the option for you. Either way, you’ll want to make sure that your door is hung correctly in the frame.

Wood is Prominent

Wood is seen throughout Southwestern design-inspired rooms. The wood used is honey-colored or other brown finish as a nod to nature. The furniture is usually constructed with thick legs, making the furniture appear chunky and substantial in the room. For extra added interest, it is common to find painted furniture in Southwest-inspired rooms, and not only white or cream. Red, lime green and cobalt blue tables and armoires are conversation starters and create visual interest.

When Hollywood Studios Married Off Gay Stars to Keep Their Sexuality a Secret

During the Golden Age of Hollywood in the 1920s, actors and actresses shot to fame𠅋ut only if they tailored their images to the demands of the big studios. For LGBT actors, that often meant marrying a person of the opposite sex.

The early 20th century represented a unique time for LGBT people in the country. Throughout the Roaring Twenties, men dressed as women and gender non-conformity and queerness weren&apost as taboo in big cities as they would be years later.

Queerness could be appreciated on stage, but in the every day lives of major stars it was often hidden in sham unions known as "lavender marriages," according to Stephen Tropiano, professor of Screen Studies at Ithaca College and author of The Prime Time Closet: A History of Gays and Lesbians on TV.

These marriages were arranged by Hollywood studios between one or more gay, lesbian or bisexual people in order to hide their sexual orientation from the public. They date back to the early 20th century and carried on past the gay liberation movement of the 1960s.

Lavender marriages were a solve in part for “moral clauses” issued by big studios at the time. The clauses, first introduced by Universal Film Company, permitted the company to discontinue actors&apos salaries "if they forfeit the respect of the public.” The kind of behavior deemed unacceptable ranged widely from criminal activity to association with any conduct that was considered indecent or startling to the community. The clauses exist to this day.

“We have to remember that a lot of these decisions that were being made, they were economic decisions,” says Tropiano. “It was about a person holding on to their career.”

One of the earliest speculated lavender marriages was the 1919 union of silent film actor and early sex symbol Rudolph Valentino and actress Jean Acker, who was rumored to have򠯮n lesbian. On the couple’s wedding night, Acker apparently quickly regretted the marriage and locked her new husband out of their hotel room, according to the The New York Times. Soon after, they got divorced.

Rudolph Valentino and Jean Acker, circa 1920s.

ullstein bild/Getty Image Topical Press Agency/Getty Images

Valentino also married costume designer Natacha Rambova in 1923, at a time when his career was starting to take off and the roles he played were seen as less typically masculine, such as in the film “Monsieur Beaucaire” in 1924. His marriage to Rambova ended in 1925, which left some speculating that the marriages of the “pink powder puff” (a nickname Valentino acquired after playing effeminate roles on screen) were coverups to keep the sex symbol’s reputation intact.

Identifying how many Hollywood couples tied the knot to cloak their sexuality is, of course problematic since it’s primarily based on speculation.

“I think the hardest thing for a historian is to kind of sift through what the rumor [is] and what is actually factual," says Tropiano.

One commonly cited source for speculation is the memoir of Scotty Bowers, Full Service: My Adventures in Hollywood and the Secret Sex Lives of the Stars. Bowers’ account details sexual encounters, gay and straight, that he claims he both arranged and took part in, beginning in 1946.

Bowers wrote that he had been sexually involved with leading actor Cary Grant and his roommate, Randolph Scott, for more than a decade. At the time, Grant was cycling through five marriages with women. Grant’s daughter, Jennifer Grant, has disputed the allegations, through her spokeswoman, saying in 2012 that her father as “very straight,” according to The New York Times.

Actors Cary Grant and Randolph Scott lived together in the 1930s.

John Kobal Foundation/Getty Images

Grant died in 1986, and many of the subjects whose lives Bowers describes are also deceased. Some have questioned whether Bowers&apos accounts in the autobiography, and the corresponding 2017 documentary Scotty and the Secret History of Hollywood, are accurate. But the self-proclaimed 𠇏ixer” includes details and photographs that he argues back up his claims.

Among the most speculated lavender marriages was between the famed actor Rock Hudson and his secretary Phyllis Gates. They married in 1955 and separated two years later, after rumors of his homosexuality and infidelity began to pile up. 

Waves of rumors and speculation around Hudson’s affairs became so widespread that they even helped foster the growth of celebrity tabloid journalism. The publication Confidential became popular in the mid-1950s by featuring salacious celebrity news. The tabloid outed popular figures like Hudson before outing was even a thing. Despite the coverage, Hudson never addressed his sexual orientation publicly before he died of AIDS in 1985.

Rock Hudson and his bride Phyllis Gates at their 1955 wedding.

Bettmann Archive/Getty Images

Some gay actors chose to live openly, despite the risk. In the 1930s, actor William Haines refused to hide his relationship with his partner. Haines was contracted with MGM in the 1920s and �s, while also living with a former sailor named Jimmy Shields.

Even with the common—yet unspoken—knowledge that the two men were romantically involved, Haines’ popularity didn’t take a hit until years later. That’s when he was given an ultimatum, either get married to a woman or he would be dropped by MGM, according to Tropiano.

William Haines, circa 1932.

Hulton Archive/Getty Images

“[Haines] had to make a choice between getting rid of his male partner and having a career,” says Tropiano. 𠇊nd he actually chose the male partner.”

Haines then left the silver screen behind to create a successful interior design business with his partner. He’s now often considered one of Hollywood’s first openly gay stars.

Lavender marriages became less prevalent in the 1960s and �s as the gay rights movement gained momentum following the Stonewall Riots of 1969. 

Although representation in film and on television was still scarce, the actual lives of the stars on screen—straight, gay or bisexual—weren’t dictated by studios as much as they had been in the past.

FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate.

Interior Gate, Butrint - History

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Data Resources

The BLM, with its extensive and complex land-management mission across 245 million surface and 700 million sub-surface acres, regularly gathers, maintains, and publishes various types of data to inform stakeholders and the general public about its stewardship responsibilities. This data includes detailed information on the commercial uses of the public lands (such as energy development, livestock grazing, mining, and timber harvesting) recreational activities and revenues wild horse and burro management, including figures relating to on-range herd populations, removals from the range, and national adoption figures cadastral (mapping) surveys conservation of rangeland resources and more than 870 special units, such as wilderness areas, that are part of the BLM's 34 million-acre National Conservation Lands system and the socio-economic impacts of public land management.

Below are links to publications, such as Public Land Statistics and A Sound Investment for America, that collectively tell the story of how the BLM is managing America's public lands for a variety of uses.

Socioeconomic Data

Public Land Statistics

The BLM publishes the Public Land Statistics report annually. Each report provides information about our multiple-use land management activities.

Golden Gate Theater reveals gorgeous new interiors

The theater first opened in 1922 (side note: the National Registry of Historic Places cites the building’s inception as 1921, but SHN defers to the 1922 date these days) as a vaudeville venue and became a mainstay of what was then San Francisco’s hustling Market Street theater district, hosting the likes of Frank Sinatra, the Andrews Sisters, and the Three Stooges.

By 1954 there wasn’t much of a market for vaudeville anymore, so owners RKO leased the place out as a movie house instead.

Unfortunately, this meant the first of the Golden Gate’s many renovations, with the 1954 revamp being the most damaging to the original Gustave Lansburgh 1920s design. Gracie Hays wrote in SHN Magazine in June in 2014:

There was a strong effort to stamp out its seemingly outdated vaudeville past in hopes of appealing to a wider audience. Consequently, much of Lansburgh’s interior work was torn down in favor of giving the theatre a more modern appearance. The grand marble staircase was replaced with an escalator, and the walls were covered with neon signs.

Like most MidMarket theaters, the Golden Gate fell on hard times during the 1960s and closed in 1972. SHN moved in seven years later and made a bid to restore much of the Lansburgh look.

Working on the lobby during the ‘79 restoration. SFPL

Photos from recent years, however, reveal that the ’70s luster had dimmed again by the 21st century, and increasingly the Golden Gate appeared dated and dingy compared to the likes of the dynamic new Curran Theater (which complete its own renovation in 2017) or even the nearby Orpheum Theater (which last benefitted from a renovation 20 years ago).

After 2017’s tour of The Curious Incident of the Dog In the Night-Time wrapped up, the theater went under wraps and tapped ELS Architecture (the same firm behind the restoration of Oakland’s Fox Theatre) to try to turn back time again. SHN refers to the work only as a “multimillion dollar” renovation without citing a specific figure.

The resulting photos look pretty sterling, but, as always, opening night will serve as the final test of the work done. The Golden Gate Theater reopens to the public on September 11.

Watch the video: Butrint National Park, Preserving the Rise and Fall of an Ancient City (January 2022).