Christopher M. Newton

Dr. Jose Albert Rivera, in my opinion, was involved in MKULTRA. We know for certain that MKULTRA sub projects dealt with the unwitting testing of LSD on a wide variety of subjects. There are many references and a few lawsuits that refer to the use of LSD on unwitting subjects in the halls at Langley and other installations as well as in public. So there's a strong precedent to the CIA just slipping it to someone. There is the Frank Olson case to consider as proof. If Dr. Rivera had access to these drugs then he was certainly in the "program". so to speak. We may never know if, when he slipped LSD to Adele, it was part of an "official" experiment or it was just a sick personal agenda. I feel pretty strongly that Lee (and Harvey) Oswald's situation was probably also a MKULTRA sub project. It has already been established that some MKULTRA projects involved children (I have not yet read Armstrong so correct me if I'm wrong). If the CIA was building a double agent and melding two persons into one character then psycho drugs and mind control would be right in line with building this "Manchurian Candidate". So following this train of thought I decided to find a link that I could follow from Rivera to Oswald.

Ed Haslam states "There were other connections between NIH and New Orleans. Of particular interest was Jose Rivera, M.D. Ph.D., who sat on the NIH Board of Directors in the 1960’s. We will note that the Dr. Rivera was really Col. Jose A. Rivera, one of the U.S. Army’s top experts in biological warfare, and that in the summer of 1963 he was in New Orleans handing out research grants from NIH (Institute for Neurological Diseases and Blindness) to Tulane Medical School, LSU Medical School, and the Ochsner Clinic".

I don't know who Rivera might have talked to in New Orleans, other than his "friend" Winston, but we could assume that he would probably visit one of his esteemed peers in biological research who lived nearby, H. Warner Kloepfer. While reading the next statement keep in mind the note above in which Haslam mentions Tulane, LSU and Ochsner.

I quote, "Kloepfer exemplified the historical problem of financial deprivation amongst genetics clinics in the state: In the late 1970's, he disclosed to me that his rank and salary at Tulane had never changed. His was able to accomplish his monumental field studies by traveling on an economical BMW motorcycle; however, lack of funds for lodging dramatically limited the range of those studies. He was able to obtain meaningful research support mainly for peripheral subjects, such as the inheritance of split dermal ridges. His peer-reviewed publications on genetic diseases in Louisiana spanned the 25 years from 1955 to 1979. To my knowledge, none of those landmark publications was grant-supported, though he left several file drawers of rejected grant applications. Toward the untimely end of his career, he was the author with the greatest number of citations in Mendelian Inheritance in Man. The citations are referenced online at (search term, "kloepfer").

Several colleagues with strong inclinations toward Medical Genetics collaborated with Kloepfer at Tulane during this period: Ralph Platou (Pediatrics department head), William Sternberg (Pathology), and Carolyn Talley (Public Health). Platou had the first March of Dimes (MOD) Birth Defects Center (BDC) in Louisiana but only mentioned "defects of a presumptively genetic origin. Other Tulane specialists worked closely with Kloepfer to define syndromes in their specialties, including Vincent Derbes (Dermatology), Herbert Ichinose (Pathology), James Killian (Neurology), Jeannette Laguaite (Speech Pathology), J. William Rosenthal (Ophthalmology), and M. Bruce Sarlin (Psychiatry). Kloepfer collaborated with many extramural colleagues as well, including David Van Gelder (Pediatrics practice), Richard Juberg (Genetics, University of Virginia), ames McLaurin (Otolaryngology practice), Neal Owens (Ophthalmology practice), and Richard Paddison (Neurology-LSU). There were also Tulane colleagues whose association with Kloepfer was important: Norman Woody, in Pediatrics, who was working on biochemical genetic disorders, and Maria Varela, who was initially in Anatomy but moved to Pathology to run the Cytogenetics laboratory in 1970. Cytogenetics laboratories had been set up in the Pathology departments of both Tulane and Ochsner in the 1960's."

So these two "birds of a feather", Rivera and Koepfer must have known each other, no? Well you might already know where this is going. Ruth Koepfer, Warner's wife, was apparently the "Clerk" of the local Quaker friends organization. This is from Ruth Kloepfer and Ruth Paine's WC testimony. I've found out that this is another lie, Warner was the "secretary" or clerk of the society not his wife. The Dallas Organization, South Central Yearly Meeting of Friends (Quakers), has a website and there's a little scholarship setup in Warner's honor, not his wife's. I repeat, this is the Dallas group and I see no indication that any other southern group has a similar relationship.

So, I guess we're also to believe Ruth Paine when she states she's never met Ruth Koepfler. Even though they've both met Lee Harvey Oswald and they're both Quakers in groups that seem pretty cozy when they share scholarships for their clerks.

I quote from Richard Billings New Orleans notes, " . Fair Play for Cuba meetings may have been held at Ruth Kloepfer's home... "

It gets better.....I quote again The Warren Commission: "Aside from Ruth Paine and Ruth Kloepfer and her daughters, the Murrets were the only social visitors the OSWALDS had." [CIA 475; WCD 75; WR 276] Ruth Kloepfer had received a letter from Ruth Paine requesting she help the OSWALDS for humanitarian reasons. Ruth Kloepfer was interviewed in May 1977: "I was not a friend of Ruth Paine, I had never met her before. I received an official letter, she was a Quaker in Texas...She knew OSWALD'S wife...and was concerned about her. They asked me if I, as a Clerk of the New Orleans Meeting, would stop by. The wife was not at home the first time I stopped by, but Mr. OSWALD was. I went back and saw her later. It was strictly because I was the Clerk of the New Orleans Quaker Meeting. I worked for Sheriff Hyde in the Criminal Courts building at the time." Asked if she had any CIA connection, Ruth Kloepfer said she had none. A CIA Office of Security document contained traces on Dr. Warner Kloepfer (born February 25, 1913): "Kloefper was of interest to OO/C during September 1963, apparently in relation to OSI requirements." Dr. Kloepfer was interviewed and queried about the CIA Office of Security record: "I have never been a CIA employee. I have been interviewed about other people from time to time, it seems to me, by the CIA. Someone wanted to know something about somebody. I think I have had this happen. I had something, I don't recall exactly what...somebody who they are checking on. They asked me to tell them what I knew about them. You say my name is in OSWALD'S address book? Well, that would be impossible. I mean there must be some error because there is no way for him to have my name." OSWALD did have the names, "Ruth Kloepfer" and "H Warner Kloepfer," in his address book on page 46. [CIA 646-277] The CIA's Office of Security files reflected H. Warner Kloepfer was a faculty member of Tulane University. FBI files noted he was on the mailing list of the Southern Conference Educational Fund.

In I think it all starts with the money and I believe there are two major conspiracies at work here. The first to remove the Kennedy Administration and the second to conceal and cover up. Not all the "players" needed to be actively involved in both phases.

Big Oil and the "Military Industrial Complex" both stood to lose and both were intertwined. Both these interests had their own back channels to the CIA and vice versa. I'm going to call this group including the rogue elements in the CIA, "Team A". (I use rogue loosely because if the director(s) is/are involved then the rogue element may really be the conservative element that's not witting).

Let's suppose that "Team A" decided to act before Kennedy had the chance to reduce our presence in South East Asia. The oil depreciation allowance was probably small potatoes compared to the funds spent on a major conflict. It takes a huge amount of oil and gas to deploy the U.S. Military for a long term conflict. Then there's the obvious equipment, weaponry supply and development necessary to sustain the conflict. Lastly, fresh sand in the sandbox for Dulles, Conien, Lansdale & Co. and a guarantee of continued employment.

"Team A" considers how to do this and sends their dirty trickster, Lansdale (recently woodshedded by the Administration), to cozy up to the target. They then approach their own asset and bagman extraordinaire, LBJ, and make him an offer he can't refuse. The Mob is already on their payolla because of ongoing operations, they have a joint interest in, against the tiny nation of Cuba. Would the Mob object to helping removing their biggest nemesis? I think not. "Team A" is also planning "phase 2", the cover up, so they get with LBJ's team at home under the big sky and enlist the players needed to control the aftermath, Clark, Cofer, Jaworksi, the local police, etc. In the meantime, Mr. Dirty Tricks has enlisted so many factions that the plot twists will offer decades of conjecture, dead ends and misdirections and offer up plenty of opportunities for "phase2".

The FBI so far is still unwitting but not unfriendly to the "Team A" plans. Hoover was a lot of things but the image and reputation of the Bureau was most important and he would not have risked that to be part of this treachery. I think his early remarks concerning the communists and Castro prove that he was looking at the angles, whether he examined "all the angles" is another matter. I'm going to call LBJ, the FBI and Warren Commission "Team B". LBJ, alone, may have been the only witting member and used his new-found power to mold and shape the priorities of "Team B".

Shortly after the dirty deed is accomplished LBJ wants to form a friendly board of inquiry with his minions at home in Texas. Only under pressure does he acquiesce and build the Warren Commission. As with Hoover, he demands that "for the good of the country", the patsy supplied conveniently by "Team A" must be found guilty as a "Lone Nut". This effectively deflects all legitimate investigation away from "Team A" and resources are expended proving the "unprovable" such as the SBT.

In Barr McClellan's Book, "Blood, Money & Power", there's a "factionalized" account of how LBJ enlists Clark into the conspiracy. I think, given Clark's connections with the oil aristocracy, that this may have happened "the other way around" that Clark may have enlisted LBJ.

Who killed JFK? The question has been asked by millions in the last forty years despite the conclusions of the Warren Commission set forth in September of 1964. The official story has been that Lee Harvey Oswald, acting alone, fired three shots from the Texas Schoolbook Depository and that one of those bullets struck President Kennedy and killed him.

I believe that the evidence available to the Warren Commission at the time indicated beyond any doubt that there was more than one shooter and that many more individuals were involved. Conspiracy theories and suspects are equally plentiful and my own view is that there may have been two separate conspiracies that together helped cover up the treacherous act. An act of assassination is not unlike any other military operation and military operations consist of different phases that take place in a logical order. The first conspiracy, in my assassination theory, was this "Operation Order" (OPORD) which consists of these four basic stages:

- Identifying the problem

- Assessment of the situation

- Development of the course of action

- Execution of the the course of action

The Problem - President Kennedy had recently revealed that he was pulling troops home from the Vietnam Conflict and he was expected to target an "oil depletion allowance" for reduction that gave oil companies a twenty-five percent pre-tax profit. Neither of these actions were good for what was then called "Big Oil" or for what former President Eisenhower had labeled the "military-industrial complex". The CIA was under increasing pressure from the Kennedy administration because of operational failures, executive action, working relationships with the Mafia and a general consensus that they were simply out of control. Vice President Johnson was facing at least three different investigations, any of which could impeach him, and rumors had it that he would be removed from the next presidential election "ticket".

Assessment and Development - I believe that initially "Big Oil" and the "military-industrial complex" were probably the instigators and brought in the CIA who helped assess and develop the course of action. The Dulles brothers, Edward Lansdale and Lucien Conien are at the top of the heap for CIA suspects, all had been recently been removed from posts or otherwise reduced by the Kennedy Administration. Lansdale was a master of the art of dirty tricks, had planned several assassinations and was considered quite unorthodox in his techniques. The fact that we had Oswald and the CIA, anti-Castro Cubans, southern right-wingers, the mafia, russian double agents all as possible and probable conspirators indicates that an expert hand been developing and coordinating the plan. Many researchers have suggested that the assassination planning included possible cities other than Texas. I think that Dallas, which had an openly hostile atmosphere because of civil rights resistance and right wing politics, offered a better opportunity. In Texas, Vice President Johnson controlled the courts and local government through his lawyers and because of his political background. Johnson could enlist the help of local law enforcement officials and buy whatever influence was needed in the aftermath of the assassination.

Execution - Like "blood brothers" who share a common bond all the players above brought people to participate at Dealey Plaza. The CIA may have controlled Oswald, brought in anti-Castro cubans and Mafia hit-men (and Jack Ruby) as well as their own operators such as E. H. Hunt and Frank Sturgis. "Big Oil" and Johnson may have had a hand in enlisting Mac Wallace, "The Minutemen" (racist right wingers), elements of the Dallas Police Department such as Roscoe White and JD Tippett. Johnson himself may have been enlisted by Edward Clark who had connections with "Big Oil". Johnson even went so far as to have an argument with President Kennedy the morning of the motorcade concerning seating arrangements, he did not want a friend of his sitting in the Presidents car. There are many other suspects that have been named elsewhere almost all have some tie to the above people and organizations.

The second conspiracy started at least seconds after the President's convertible passed under the triple overpass. In the United States one is supposed to be innocent until proven guilty. In this case, Lee Harvey Oswald was deemed guilty almost before the last echo had faded in the plaza. I cannot conceive of how the most professional investigative team in the history of law enforcement, the FBI, could so callously ignore evidence in the manner it did. Unless of course there was a mandate to satisfy the nation that this "silly little communist", as Jackie Kennedy called him, acted alone. There is ample evidence that witnesses testimony was changed and in some cases wholly re-written. Movies of the motorcade were altered. Photographs were cropped, suppressed and altered as well. Many witnesses died sometimes right before they were to testify. Many more witnesses were harassed or were afraid. Evidence that didn't fit was ignored. Witnesses admitted to being forced to perjure themselves such as the Parkland Hospital Staff. The CIA employed a full time staff to sow disinformation about conspiracy researchers (this may still be going on). The Warren Commission was reluctantly put together by LBJ after being pressured to do so. I invite anyone to read the proceedings to get an idea of how badly witnesses were treated.

I must say that I don't think J. Edgar Hoover had a role in the first conspiracy I mentioned. Maybe someone, like a close friend or neighbor, had speculated on whether he would cooperate if say a piano fell from on high and changed the administration. I think this is a more likely a scenario. Mr. Hoover would have had to have had an active role in the second conspiracy for it to be successful. LBJ, his Warren Commission and his old friend and neighbor, J. Edgar Hoover, directed the second conspiracy while most of those involved in the first part were silenced, either willingly or unwillingly.

Christopher Wren

Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS ( / r ɛ n / [2] 30 October 1632 [O.S. 20 October] – 8 March 1723 [O.S. 25 February]) [3] was one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history, as well as an anatomist, astronomer, geometer, and mathematician-physicist. [3] [4] He was accorded responsibility for rebuilding 52 churches in the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, including what is regarded as his masterpiece, St Paul's Cathedral, on Ludgate Hill, completed in 1710. [5]

The principal creative responsibility for a number of the churches is now more commonly attributed to others in his office, especially Nicholas Hawksmoor. Other notable buildings by Wren include the Royal Hospital Chelsea, the Old Royal Naval College, Greenwich, and the south front of Hampton Court Palace.

The Wren Building, the main building at the College of William and Mary, Virginia, has been attributed to Wren. [ citation needed ]

Educated in Latin and Aristotelian physics at the University of Oxford, Wren was a founder of the Royal Society (president 1680–1682), and his scientific work was highly regarded by Isaac Newton and Blaise Pascal.

Christopher Wren

Sitting at the highest point of the city of London is one of the city’s most famous and recognizable sights. St. Paul’s Cathedral has dominated the skyline for 300 years and is the second largest church building in the United Kingdom. The cathedral holds a significant place in the UK’s national identity. This iconic church is one of the many works designed from the brilliant mind of one man, often considered the greatest British architect of all time. Christopher Wren designed the masterpiece known as St. Paul’s Cathedral in 1673. The designer, astronomer, and mathematician also designed 52 other churches and numerous other buildings, including the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. In addition to his architectural efforts, Wren was highly regarded for his scientific work, earning praise from Blaise Pascal and Isaac Newton.

Early Life and Education

Christopher Wren was born on October 20, 1632 in East Knoyle, Wiltshire, and was the only surviving son of Christopher Wren Sr. and Mary Cox. His father was the rector of Knoyle and would later be Dean of Windsor. Christopher was a sickly child but would survive into sturdy old age. His education began at home with a private tutor and his father’s instruction. After Christopher Sr.’s royal appointment as Dean of Windsor in March 1635, the family spent part of each year in Windsor, but little is known about young Christopher’s life at Windsor. During his youth, Wren received a thorough instruction in Latin and also learned to draw. His ability to draw was put to academic use in the form of anatomical drawings for Cerebri Anatome (1664), the anatomy textbook of the brain. During his youth, Wren showed an interest in the design and construction of mechanical instruments.

On June 25, 1650, Wren enrolled and entered Wadham College, Oxford. Here he studied Latin and the works of Aristotle. He graduated B.A. in 1651 and received his M.A. two years later. At this point he was a pure scientist, focused on anatomy, physics, and astronomy. He experimented with submarine design and the design of telescopes. At age 25, he was appointed professor of astronomy at Gresham College in London. Four years later he was appointed professor of astronomy at Oxford. In 1662, Wren was a founding member of the Royal Society, England’s premier scientific body.


Wren’s observations of the moon lead to the invention of micrometers for the telescope. He also constructed a transparent beehive for scientific observation and had taken part in medical experiments at Wadham College. At Wadham he performed the first successful injection of a substance into the bloodstream (of a dog).

During his time at Gresham college, Wren did experiments involving the use of magnetic variation and lunar observation to determine longitude and help with navigation. Other areas in which he experimented and contributed included muscle functionality and optics.


It was from his study of physics and engineering that Wren’s interest in architecture developed. During his time, the profession of architecture as we understand it today did not exist. It was not uncommon for well educated young men to take up architecture as a gentlemanly activity, considering it was widely accepted as a branch of applied mathematics. While a student at Oxford, Wren became familiar with the fundamentals of architectural design. His first architectural project was the chapel of Pembroke College in Cambridge, done at the request of his uncle, the Bishop of Ely, in 1663. The second project was the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford, and this was completed in 1668. This design was a combination of classical and modern approach, influenced by the form of the ancient Theatre of Marcellus in Rome.

The highlight of Wren’s architectural reputation has always been St. Paul’s Cathedral. He also had numerous major secular commissions, showing the variety and maturity of his architecture. Many of these commissions were received during the 1670’s, a time of many remarkable designs for him. These designs include the Royal Observatory and the Wren Library at Trinity College, Cambridge. The 1680’s saw more significant designs, including the King’s House between 1683 and 1685, Winchester, where Charles II intended to spend his declining years. This was never completed, as Charles II died in 1685. He also took on designing Kensington Palace and Hampton Court.


Christopher Wren died on February 25, 1723 at the age of 90. At this point, newer generations of architects were beginning to look past his style. By the 20th century, the potency of his influence on English architecture had been reduced, and his work gradually stopped being perceived as a source of examples applicable to contemporary design. However, he is still revered as a great architect and his work (especially St. Paul’s Cathedral) still stands today as spectacles from his genius. Wren’s gravestone features a Latin inscription which translates as: ‘If you seek his memorial, look about you.’

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Christopher J. Newton, M.D.

Christopher Newton, M.D., a board certified ophthalmologist, specializes in cornea and refractive surgery, and diseases and surgery of the anterior segment.

Dr. Newton graduated Magna Cum Laude from the University of Vermont College of Art and Sciences and received his Medical degree from the University of Vermont, College of Medicine. He completed his residency in ophthalmology from SUNY Upstate Medical University and received his fellowship in external disease and refractive surgery from the University of Minnesota.

Dr. Newton specializes in the surgical and medical treatment of corneal and anterior segment disease including keratoconus, Fuch’s dystrophy, corneal ulcerations, ocular surface disorders and dry eye. He also performs refractive surgery and modern cataract surgery incorporating presbyopia-correcting lenses as well as lenses and techniques to reduce astigmatism.

After completing his fellowship, Dr. Newton joined the New Hampshire Eye Associates in Manchester, New Hampshire, where he built an active practice over four years. He then chose to relocate to Rhode Island in November of 2008 and joined The Rhode Island Eye Institute.

Dr. Newton was born and raised in Vermont, and currently resides in Providence with his wife Cathryn.

Christopher M. Newton - History

Any information in brackets [ ] was provided by the Susan LaCoe

10 Dec 1868
James E. SMITH to Miss Almyra B. HALLOCK, both of Wyoming Co, married 16 Aug 1868, Parsonage in Newton

George SMITH of Franklin & Miss Christine MONTANYE of Kingston, PA married at the M. E. Parsonage of Newton on the 3rd.

17 Dec 1868
John VANDENBURG m/Mrs Pheby E. DECKER on 10 Dec 1868 in Pittston. Both were from Newton Twp.

Jan 1869
Joseph B. FURMAN m/Anna COURTRIGHT on 1 Jan 1869 at the home of the brides father in West Pittston

Feb 1869
Tommie, 4 yrs, only child of Rev & Mrs J. II SARGERT d/14 Apr 1869 after a illness of a few hrs. He died in the Presbyterian Parsonage in Newton.

Peter CORSELINS m/Miss Octavia E. FITCH 14 May 1869, all from Newton. [CORSELIUS]

Mrs Phoebe J. KEIM, abt 32, and widow of the late Jacob KEIM of Ransom Twp d/Wed, 30 June 1869 at her residence in West Pittstion. She leaves one child a boy about 8 yrs of age. [Phoebe is a daughter of James and Margaret (Coss) Hopkins. Her son is William H. Keim. Jacob was alive during the 1860 census Ransom Twp.]

Levi DERSHIMER and Emily, oldest daughter of L. H. LITTS, Esq, both of Ransom Valley, PA were married at home on Saturday morning, 11 Sept 1869.

Sterling E. GRIFFIN of Newton, PA m/Miss Annie E. ACE of Milwaukie, PA at Wyoming on 16 Oct 1869.

Lewis H. SHALES of Lemon, Wyoming Co m/Mrs A. T. RICE of Newton, Luzerne Co in Newton on 10 Oct 1869.

Andrew HOPKINS m/Miss Sarah E. MICHAELS at Wyoming on 30 Oct 1869. Both were from Milwaukie, PA.
[Andrew is the son of James and Margaret (Coss) Hopkins.]

Christian SHAFER was killed Monday evening at Buttermilk Falls, on the L.V. RR.

George C. COON of Ransom, Luzerne Co, m/Miss Jennie L. MOORE on 4 Nov 1869 at the residence of the bride's
father in Northumberland, Wyoming Co.

Stephen METSING, of Wilkes Barre m/Miss Abbie J. WALTER of Wilkes Barre on30th ult at the Evangelical Parsonage in Newton.

Nov 1869
J. J. MILLER of Providence m/Miss Kate H. LITTS, daughter of L. H. LITTS, Esq of Ransom Valley on Tues, 14 Dec 1869 at home.

Thursday, 10 February 1870
Edward C. KOZELL of Abington m/Miss Ruth A. WILBER of Ransom, Luzerne Co, on the 25th of Jan 1870.

Thursday, 16 June 1870
Jane TAYLOR, 71 yrs, 2 months, 16 days, wife of Christopher TAYLOR died 22 May 1870 in Newton Twp after a
lingering illness.

Rebecca HOPKINS, 33 or 39, daughter of the late Mr HOPKINS, 3 Jan 1872. [born 25 Jan 1833 daughter of James and Margaret (Coss) Hopkins.]

Thurs, 23 May 1872
Amos BUMGARDNER of Ransom m/Miss Mary ROZELL of Mt Zion, Luzerne Co on the 8th inst at the parsonage of
the Evangeical Association in Ransom.

Thursday, 6 June 1872
Selma COSNER, 17 years and 3 months, daughter of David and Amy COSNER died, 6 May 1872 in Newton.

Thursday, 13 June 1872
Harry Baldwin KERN, abt 3 years of age, son of Abraham and Alice Kern, died 5 June 1871 (that's the date it had) of
spotted fever of 9 weeks of illness.

Thursday, 22 August 1872
Robert F. LEWIS m/Miss Fanny L. COOPER eldest daughter of Dr H. T. COOPER in Newton on 7 Aug 1872.

Thursday, 29 August 1872
Mrs Timothy MC CLOSKY died after returning home from the CORSELIUS funeral. She had reached a good old age and was a devoted member of the Baptist church.

Thursday, 5 Sept 1872
Jennie, 11 years, 24 days, daughter of James and Martha CHAMBERS died on the 23rd inst at Milwaukie, PA.

Cora LEARN, abt 6 months, only daughter of Harvey and Sarah P. LEARN, died of the cholera on 7 Sept 1872 in

Minnie, 9 years, 8 months, youngest daughter of Rev Alfred and Mrs Fanny P. BRIGHAM died 24 Aug 1872 at the Methodist parsonage in Newton Centre. Her parents, brother and sister will deeply feel their loss, she is safe in heaven with the sister gone before.

Thursday, 26 Sept 1972
Thomas BARTHOLD, of Ransom Twp died on Monday from a sun stroke he had from riding his mowing machine in July.

Thursday, 10 Oct 1872
Annie M. BEDEEL, 3 month old daughter of Jacob and Ella BEDEEL died of dysentery, at Milwaukie. [BEDELL]

Thursday, 31 Oct 1872
William SHOEMAKER, 26, son of the late George SHOEMAKER died of Scarlet Fever, 7 Oct 1872 in Newton.

Thursday, 7 Nov 1872
Mrs R. D. LACOE, 41 yrs, 7 months, 23 days died at her residence after a long painful illness. Bridget was the wife of R. D. LACOE, Esq. Her funeral took place on Sunday and her remains were interred in the family grounds in Hollenback Cemetery.

Thursday, 5 Dec 1872
Jacob L. BEDELL, 1 yr, 10 months, 13 days, only child of Jacob and Ella BEDELL died 13 Nov 1872 in Milwaukie.

Sarah J. BURGESS, 3 yrs, 7 mo, 8 days, only daughter of Frederic and Kate BURGESS died 26 Nov 1872 in Milwaukie.

Thursday, 26 Dec 1872
Died, 23 Nov 1872, at Ransom, Barbara BRANG, widow of the late Jacob DERSHEIMER in the 76th year of her age, (75 yrs, 10 mo, 21 days) leaving 7 children, 24 grandchildren, 11 great grandchildren in all 42 descendants. Her husband predeceased her by one year, they were married in 1819.

Parke RICHARDS, 7 yrs, 6 months, youngest son of Daniel W. and Almina L. RICHARDS died 23 Dec 1872 of spotted fever, in Newton, Luzerne Co, PA.

Mahala JACOBY, 16 yrs, 6 mo, 21 days, daughter of Jacob JACOBY died of dropsy on 24 Nov 1872 in Newton.

Thursday, 9 Jan 1873
Orphans Court Sale: Estate of Thos. F. BARTHOLD, deceased. By virtue of an order of the Orphans Court will be sold on the premises, on the 8th day of Feb A.D. 1873 at 2 o'clock.

Geo. FRANKLIN of Tunkhannock m/Miss Janie VOSBURG, daughter of William VOSBURG on 29 Dec 1872, at the home of the bride's father in Milwaukie.

S. A. WATSON m/Miss Clarinda CORBY on 8 Jan, 1873 in Ransom. Both were from Falls Twp, Wyoming Co.

Thursday, 13 March 1873
Annie FINKLER, 15 yrs daughter of Peter FINKLER died 16 Feb 1873 in Newton.

Lydia BIESECKER, 38 years, 3 mo, 17 days, wife of George BIESECKER and daughter of Silas SUTTON died 20 Feb 1873 in Newton.

Jennie BUMGARDNER, 21 yrs, 6 mo, daughter of John BUMGARDNER of Ransom died of consumption on 26 Feb 1873 at the residence of her brother in law, John MC DONNELLY.

Thursday, 27 March 1873
L. H. ROSENKRANS whose obituary appears in another column was the only surviving brother of our townsman, Ira D. ROSENKRANS. Lewis H. ROSENKRANS, 45, son of Benjamin and Susan ROSENKRANS died 10 March 1873 in Newton. He was born in Sussex Co, NJ 22 Jan 1828 and removed to this place with his parents, three sisters and two brothers in the spring of 1848. He married Miss Arilla WILLIAMS of Huntington on 18 March 1852. Shortly afterwards he built a house on a part of his father's farm, where he resided at the time of his death. He was industrious in summer plying his vocation as a farmer, in winter the arduous duties of a teacher. He was engaged for a few years as a clerk, but his father needing his assistance he again turned his attention to agriculture and teaching, until failing health incapacitated him for further labors.

Saml. GARDNER m/Miss Flora IVES, both of Ransom, on 27 March 1873 at the residence of Mrs John ROWE in Plymouth.

Wickham SMITH m/Miss Frank STINARD, both of Newton, on 29 March 1873 in Abington.

Henry R. COLLUM, 61 years, died on 30 March 1873 of dropsy, in Newton.

Thursday, 8 May 1873
Emma HUTHMAKER, 19 years, died 1 May 1873 at the residence of her grandfather Jacob HUTHMAKER, in Ransom.

Thursday, 5 June 1873
Nellie SHELLY, 2 years, 5 mo, only child of John and Annie SHELLY died on 28 May 1873 in Newton.

Thursday, 17 July 1873
Emiline GRIFFIN, abt 53 years, wife of Pelham GRIFFIN died 9 June 1873 near Schultzville in Newton Twp.

Thursday, 11 Sept 1873
Mrs Hettie CROTZER, 72 years, 6 months, died at the home of her son, Merrit ROZELLE, of dysentery on 3 Sept 1873 in Exeter. She was born in Sussex Co, NJ on 5 March 1801 and was the daughter of John ROLOSON. She married Joseph ROZELLE in May of 1821. He died Nov 1851 leaving a family of ten children all of who are all known to be still living. In 1853 she married David CROTZER who died in 1861. She spent time in Ransom Valley with her daughter, Mrs Sebastain DERSHEIMER. She had 48 grandchildren, of whom 39 and 2 great grandchildren survive her.

Thursday, 30 Oct 1873
Mary HOPKINS, 30 years and five months, youngest daughter of James HOPKINS, died 18 Oct 1873 at the residence of her brother in law Amos SAX and sister Sarah. She had been an invalid for many years. Her father and two sisters had passed before her. She was buried in the family lot of the Methodist church at Milwaukie. Her mother previously had been stricken with paralysis and was speechless and unable to attend the service.

Frank HOUSER an employee of the Northern Central Railway met with an accident which cost him his life. He leaves a wife and five children.

Thursday, 8 Jan 1874
Susan SETZER, 73 years, 10 months and 21 days, wife of John SETZER died 21 Dec 1873 in Paradise Valley, Monroe Co, PA. At the same place, 22 Dec 1873, John SETZER aged 74 years, 4 months and 25 days also died. The deceased were the parents of Ezra SETZER, Mrs Frederic SANDWAY and Mrs Theobald BAKER of Ransom.

Thursday, 15 Jan 1874
Louis Litts BEEMER, 5 years, 5 months, youngest son of Amos and Mary BEEMER, died at Falls on 19 Dec 1873 of diphtheria.

Thursday, 9 Apr 1874
Saida VANDERBURG, 8 years, daughter of Jude and Rachel VANDERBURG died 30 March 1874 in Ransom.

Thursday, 30 Apr 1874
Peter BEDELL, JR m/Miss Emma RADER on 19 Apr 1874 at Mill City, both of Ransom.

Thomas HUTHMAKER m/Miss Julia SHELLENBERGER on 19 Apr 1874 at Mill City, both of Ransom.

Thursday, 7 May 1874
During April court, Clara E. WINTERS daughter of L.H. WINTER, Milwaukie was adopted by her uncle, John KEIM of Wilkes Barre and assumed the name of Clara E. KEIM.

Thursday, 18 June 1874
Peter BEDELL, last Tuesday this old and respected man died in Milwaukie from asthma. He leaves a wife but no children.

Friday, 28 June 1889
Mr & Mrs George RADER had a new son born 22 June and Mr & Mrs D. M. HUTHMAKER also a son born on the 22nd.

Friday, 9 August 1889
James E. DADEY of Mehoopany m/Miss GARDNER of Ransom on 5 Aug 1889 in Newton. (Maggie Gardner daughter of Elias A. and Martha Cooper Gardner)

George R. WILLIAMS, 9 months, son of Mr & Mrs David P. WILLIAMs died on 1 Aug 1889.

Friday, 30 Aug 1889
Christopher S. RICHARDS m/Sarah J. KRESAGE on 21 Aug 1889 in Newton.

The Misses Libbie KRESGE, Flora HUNT, Rose FITCH and Mrs Joseph FITCH are taking painting lessons from Mrs Alberta TOWNSEND.

Mr & Mrs James HAWKER have been spending the summer with Mrs HAWKER'S parents, Mr & Mrs A. B. FITCH, they have returned to Scranton where Mr HAWKER is a teacher.

Friday, 13 Sept 1889
Mrs Milo KEELER of Centermoreland died of heart disease at home on Thursday.

Friday, 4 Oct 1889
A son to Mr & Mrs Elmer RICHARDS of Newton Centre, Lackawanna Co on 28 Sept.

Jennie BAKER, 2 yrs, 8 months, daughter of Mr & Mrs Andrew BAKER died on the 2nd of Oct.

Mr & Mrs Terry, formerly Mrs Eliza VOSBURG of Mill City spent Thursday with Mrs Ezra SUZER.

Friday, 27 Sept 1889
Peter H. LASHER of Falls m/Miss Jennie RYMER of Mill City on 14 Sept 1889.

Friday, 11 Oct 1889
C. F. TERRY of Wilkes Barre m/ Mrs Eliza VOSBURG, of Mill City. On 29 Sept in Mill City.

Marianela Nuñez and artists of The Royal Ballet in Sylvia, The Royal Ballet

Kristen McNally as Carabosse in The Sleeping Beauty.

Helen Crawford as the Lilac Fairy and artists of The Royal Ballet in The Sleeping Beauty

The Royal Ballet in the Garland Dance, Act I, The Sleeping Beauty, 2011

Marianela Nuñez as The Lilac Fairy in The Sleeping Beauty

Kenta Kura and Marianela Nuñez in Sylvia, The Royal Ballet

Artists of The Royal Ballet in Sylvia, The Royal Ballet

Hikaru Kobayashi as Princess Aurora and artists of The Royal Ballet in The Sleeping Beauty

Early academic career and scientific pursuits

Wren was the only surviving son of a rector, and from an early age he was delicate in health. Before Christopher was three, his father was appointed dean of Windsor, and the Wren family moved into the precincts of the court. It was among the intellectuals around King Charles I that the boy first developed his mathematical interests. The life at Windsor was rudely disturbed by the outbreak of the English Civil Wars in 1642. The deanery was pillaged and the dean forced to retire, first to Bristol and then to the country home of a son-in-law, William Holder, in Oxfordshire. Wren was sent to school at Westminster but spent much time under Holder’s tuition, experimenting in astronomy. He translated William Oughtred’s work on sundials into Latin and constructed various astronomical and meteorological devices. If the general direction of his studies was toward astronomy, however, there was an important turn toward physiology in 1647 when he met the anatomist Charles Scarburgh. Wren prepared experiments for Scarburgh and made models representing the working of the muscles. One factor that stands out clearly from these early years is Wren’s disposition to approach scientific problems by visual means. His diagrams that have survived are beautifully drawn, and his models seem to have been no less elegant.

In 1649 Wren went to Wadham College, Oxford, as a “gentleman commoner,” a status that carried certain privileges, and graduated with a B.A. in 1651. Oxford at that time had passed through a rigorous purgation of its more conservative elements by the parliamentary government. New men had been introduced, some of whom possessed great ability and had a special interest in the “experimental philosophy” so eloquently heralded by the scientific philosopher Sir Francis Bacon.

Receiving his M.A. in 1653, Wren was elected a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, in the same year and began an active period of research and experiment, ending with his appointment as Gresham professor of astronomy in Gresham College, London, in 1657. In the following year, with the death of Oliver Cromwell and the ensuing political turmoil, the college was occupied by the military, and Wren returned to Oxford, where he probably remained during the events that led to the restoration of Charles II in 1660. He returned to Gresham College, where scholarly activity resumed and an intellectual circle proposed a society “for the promotion of Physico-Mathematicall Experimental Learning.” After obtaining the patronage of the restored monarchy, this group became the Royal Society, Wren being one of the most active participants and the author of the preamble to its charter.

In 1661 Wren was elected Savilian professor of astronomy at Oxford, and in 1669 he was appointed surveyor of works to Charles II. It appears, however, that, having tested himself successfully in so many directions, he still, at 30, had not found the one in which he could find complete satisfaction.

Recipients of the Newton-Azrak Award since its inception

  • Willard T. Lamade
  • Michael G. McManus
  • Ted L. Giorgetti
  • Lawrence V. Granelli
  • James E. Kibble
  • James P. Moody
  • Kenneth D. Crockett
  • Larry M. Herbert
  • William A. McIver
  • Dale R. Wilson
  • George Fernandez, Jr.
  • John Gallo
  • John B. Knowles
  • Joseph Occhipinti
  • Reginald D. Ricks
  • Edwin Rodriguez
  • Hipolito Acosta
  • Gary M. Renick
  • Richard Shuler
  • Paul Conover
  • Robert B. LaBelle
  • Peter R. Moran
  • Donald A. Peck
  • Douglas G. Roy
  • Bruce D. Sanny
  • Stanley U. Spencer
  • Mark Cangemi
  • Oscar H. Garza, Jr.
  • David Gutierrez
  • John A. Kalabus
  • Michael A. Lewis
  • Stephan A. Peregoy
  • John J. Burgmeier
  • Lee R. Prejean
  • Robert S. Coleman, Jr.
  • Charles J. Kothman
  • James F. Murphy
  • William A. Preston
  • Craig L. Weinbrenner
  • Charles A. Rodgers, Jr.
  • Thomas W. Slowinski
  • Howard H. Gay
  • Theo D. Hudson
  • Robert E. Jolicoeur
  • Jose Cisneros
  • Jesse Collins
  • Theodore E. Huebner
  • Christopher M. Jacobs
  • Johnny Magdaleno
  • Brendan Manley
  • Alan W. Marshall
  • Armando Ornelas
  • Robert Pittenridge
  • Michael W. Snyder
  • William C. Spencer, Jr.
  • Darrel Welsh
  • Lazaro Alvarez
  • John K. Crowther
  • Michael Deshaies
  • Jorge Arballo
  • Christina M. Carnes
  • Bruce L. Cooke
  • Robert S. Herrera
  • David Hinojosa, Jr.
  • Robert E. Lindemann
  • John D. Marlborough
  • Forrest J. Mauldin
  • Jose (Joe) L. Perez
  • Cheryl R. Smith
  • Jefferson L. Barr
  • Diego Gonzales
  • Richard B. Holmes
  • Joseph E. Kempa
  • Arthur G. Lopez
  • Michael W. Richardson
  • Juanita Santana
  • Andrew W. Schutt
  • William E. Simmons III
  • Austin L. Skero II
  • Guadalupe Chacon
  • Elizabeth M. Ebisuzaki
  • C. James Engelhardt
  • Stephen S. Martin, Jr.
  • Stephen C. Starch
  • Richard L. Ashlaw
  • Benjamin M. Batchelder
  • Stephen A. Brooks
  • Martin G. Hewson
  • Alexander Kirpnick
  • John C. Pfeifer
  • LeAlan L. Pinkerton
  • Susan L. Rodriguez
  • Ricardo G. Salinas
  • Orlando Sanchez
  • Mark M. Jones
  • James E. Lassiter, Jr.
  • Joseph P. Martin
  • Michael F. McCarson
  • Armando Moralez
  • Sevin K. Neufner
  • Christopher A. Ramnes
  • Floyd Southerland III
  • William T. Veal
  • Jay Visconti
  • Walter M. Davenport
  • Jesus E. De La Vega
  • James D. Goldman
  • Jonathan P. Miller
  • Betty A. Mills
  • Ruben Miranda
  • Steven J. Pastor
  • Charles L. Sachs
  • Mickey A. Valdez
  • Charles C. Whitmire
  • Casey S. Wilson
  • James L. Wolynetz, Jr.
  • Benjamin Sanford
  • Jered Bacon
  • Robert M. Lawler
  • Robert H. Arnold, Jr.
  • Herbert L. Williams
  • James P. Epling
  • Christopher D. Brinkhoff
  • Juan H. Villa
  • Ricardo J. Hernandez
  • Felix Morales III
  • Dan M. Harris, Jr.
  • Gary L. Ortega, Jr.
  • Luis A. Aguilar
  • Adam R. Ruiz
  • Steven Kartchner
  • Robert W. Rosas, Jr.
  • Salvatore Caccamo
  • Jose M. Martinez
  • Raul Tamayo
  • Brian A. Terry
  • Christopher J. Dlugokinski
  • Michael Mielnicki
  • Gabriel Pratt
  • Abraham Reeder
  • Erich S. Rohr
  • Manuel Barreda
  • Eric Gough
  • Armando Ledezma
  • Ruben Mendoza
  • Enrique A. Doster, Jr.
  • Justin L. Garza
  • Steven H. Tinder
  • Fernando Galvan
  • Arturo Gutierrez
  • Anthony Anderson
  • Remigio Guerra
  • Juan Cruz, Jr.
  • Marcus K. Johnson

The survivors of Theodore L. Newton, Jr. and George F. Azrak remain part of the Border Patrol family today. We work together to preserve the memory of these two and all our fallen heroes.

History of Hymns: 'Amazing Grace/My Chains Are Gone'

In a Facebook Live video posted on July 13, 2017, worship leader Chris Tomlin (b. 1972) sits in a patio chair, an acoustic guitar in hand. Behind him, landscaped boulders mark the elevation lines, while scattered pines and hardwoods reveal a commanding view of the late afternoon countryside. Festooned with a baseball cap featuring the state flag of Colorado, a black T-shirt, and jeans, the native Texan Tomlin exhibits the reflective warmth associated with his public persona.

After singing a portion of his enormously popular version of “Amazing Grace/My Chains Are Gone” at half tempo, Tomlin welcomes the viewers to this “behind the song” story of how he came to write the piece. Amidst muffled yells and laughter from his off-screen daughters, Tomlin offers a disclaimer: “I never set out to take the hymn ‘Amazing Grace’ and add something to it—anybody would be crazy to do that! It’s only the greatest song ever written.” Instead, Tomlin recounts a plane ride whereon he had a chance encounter with a friend who told him about some acquaintances who were making a movie about William Wilberforce called Amazing Grace (2007). His friend mentioned that the producers of the film were wondering if Tomlin would be willing to “do something” with the hymn of the same name.

After briefly recounting Wilberforce’s work toward abolishing the slave trade in Europe, Tomlin explains the life of “Wilberforce’s mentor,” John Newton (1725-1807), who wrote the hymn “Amazing Grace” (1779) after his conversion and abandonment of his career as a slave trader. (For further history see Hawn, 2018, n.p.) While pondering the proposal, Tomlin read about the history of John Newton and reflected on the depth of the lyrics in their context of slavery. Out of this reflection, he had an epiphany: “So these words just started flowing one night—my chains are gone, I’ve been set free, my God, my savior, has ransomed me—” Tomlin breaks off here and describes the word ransom “—I was thinking about how you pay a ransom for a slave—” he continues reciting the lyrics:

‘and like a flood, his mercy reigns. Unending love, Amazing Grace.’ And so I wrote that little refrain, and started singing it out to the hymn, never thinking it was going to do anything!

Tomlin chuckles and puts his hands up defensively as he looks away from the camera.

I sent it to the guys saying, ‘hey, if you want to use this for the movie, that’d be great,’ never dreaming that churches would adopt this version of ‘Amazing Grace.’ So I count it an incredible privilege to be in a long line of people who’ve sung this song.

Explaining this long line of singers, Tomlin delightedly exclaims that he is by no means the first person to modify the hymn. In fact, the final—and arguably most famous—stanza was not even written by Newton, but was added by “some guy . . . a hundred years after the hymn was originally written.” That “some guy” who attached the stanza to the hymn was E. O. Excell (1851-1921), in Coronation Hymns for Sunday School (1910), although as Hawn and others note, the original author of this stanza is unknown (Gerkin, 2019, n.p.).

Before concluding his video with a performance of “Amazing Grace/My Chains Are Gone,” Tomlin again expresses gratitude and awe that his work has the honor of being associated with “probably the greatest song in the history of humanity,” and he joyfully recounts the stories people have shared with him about how the song had impacted them.

As is implied by Tomlin’s gestures and stated justification for his version of “Amazing Grace,” the addition of his refrain has been met with considerable criticism. For example, Christian blog roundup site Patheos featured a series of posts by Jonathan Aigner criticizing Tomlin (See Aigner, 2017, n.p.). Even the Christian satire blog “Babylon Bee” got in on the act with “Federal Judge Orders Chris Tomlin to Stop Adding Choruses to Perfectly Good Hymns.” (See “Judge Orders,” 2017, n.p.) Some of these critiques are well founded: the revenue generated by copyrighting and distributing a version of a famous hymn is considerable, and since claiming the work of another for your own personal gain is generally considered theft, such revenue may be ethically dubious.

While I take some issue with such practices, and I certainly am skeptical about Tomlin’s attestations that he had “no idea” his version of “Amazing Grace” would be so popular (it’s only the “greatest song ever written” it also closes his album, See the Morning [2006]), I find the commercial aspect of church music unavoidable, if I’m being honest. Unless I decide to live to an alternate 1985 (an allusion to Back to the Future, Pt. II [1989]), I must acknowledge that hymnal compilers from all centuries have financially benefited from such actions (although often at the expense of the writers and composers, sadly). It was no accident that the most popular hymns of today and yesterday were included in one version or another in nearly every successful hymnal. Are we so naive to believe that Excell, Walker, et al, received no monetary reward for their compilations? It seems fair to say that Tomlin is right in asserting that he is just one in a long line of church musicians who have arranged or amended “Amazing Grace” or another such hymn for their own use. (Think of Charles Wesley’s “O for a Thousand Tongues” vs. Ralph Hudson’s “Blessed Be the Name” and Isaac Watts’s “Come We that Love the Lord” vs. Robert Lowry’s “Marching to Zion.”) Instead of offering yet another critique of such practices—nor indeed, of offering a spirited defense—I wish to consider an aspect of this piece’s performance in the contemporary worship idiom favored by Tomlin that has gone unexamined: the theological metaphors of the musical accompaniment.

It seems fair to say that Tomlin is right in asserting that he is just one in a long line of church musicians who have arranged or amended “Amazing Grace” or another such hymn for their own use.

It is well established that Tomlin, like the historical muse for “My Chains Are Gone,” John Newton, is deeply influenced by Calvinist theology. It is therefore unsurprising that Tomlin concludes his rendition with Newton’s original final stanza (cited below), instead of the hopeful and optimistic celebration of eternal bliss in Excell’s addition found in most hymnals (which Hawn and Carl P. Daw, Jr. suggest was more befitting the Armenian tenor of the Second Great Awakening See Hawn, Part II, n.p.):

The earth shall soon dissolve like snow
The sun forebear to shine
But God who called me here below
Shall be forever mine.

One of the hallmarks of Tomlin’s lyrical offerings has been an unwavering confidence in the absolute sovereignty of God, a prime Calvinist tenet. As Joshua K. Busman has noted in his comparative analysis of Tomlin’s version of “God of this City” versus Irish band Bluetree’s original, Tomlin’s musical setting eliminates tonicization of the relative minor from the original so as to inflect confidence in God’s inevitable acts of justice in the world, rather than on the need for human partnership with God in those acts (Busman, 2015, 199-214). While both versions are in the key of C Major, Bluetree tonicized A minor during the verses to convey a sense of dis-ease so as to impel action. Tomlin eliminates this tonicization, and the effect of the tune becomes one of unwavering confidence rather than a call to action. (See Busman, 2015, 208-213 for a complete description of this analysis.)

This tendency is present in “Amazing Grace/My Chains Are Gone” as well. While there are no substantial alterations to the harmonic structure of the song (aside from the usual improvisations and simplifications common to folk or pop styles of music), the guitar accompaniment features a notable absence from NEW BRITAIN’s setting. Aside from changing the key from F Major to G Major (reportedly to sit at the upper end of Tomlin’s register in order to convey a sense of emotional gravitas), the third of the tonic G chord, “B,” is noticeably missing. This results in a chordal structure of stacked fifths—G-x-D-G-D-G (x represents the muted A string). The highest inversion of the tonic fifth—D-G—is held as a suspension on the B and high E string throughout the entire song, only resolving the G to an F# for a brief moment at end of the PAC in the refrain.

The effect of this gesture is one of complete stability. By stacking fifths and extending the upper interval throughout the song, what dissonance there is becomes incidental. This stability assures the singer and listener of God’s unending, irrevocable grace. While there is not space here to explain this musical/theological metaphor further, I must say that this gestural device pervades Tomlin’s work, such that it is the most common chord construction across all of his albums. In fact, I have on more than one occasion referred to it as “the Tomlin chord.”

This musical apparatus seems to suggest a coherence between Tomlin’s theological position on matters of history and the musical devices he is known for. This is understandable. It is profoundly comforting to sing of grace and the assurance of God’s favor toward us in the context of a harmonically stable—dare I say conventional and lackluster—musical setting. This is a good thing. I am, however, concerned by the implications of a musical setting that treats major thirds as unwanted dissonance: what if such preference indicates an unwillingness to engage experiences or even theologies that challenge our notions of certainty? While it is certainly a stretch to conclude that eliminating the third from “Amazing Grace” is a theologically thin discourse, I am not convinced that entertaining such a stretch is unwarranted, given the prevalence of this gesture in Tomlin’s repertoire and the analyses of his work offered by Monique M. Ingalls (2011, 2018), Busman, and others. To be sure, a musical setting that emphasizes confidence in God’s sovereignty is immensely fitting to the theme of “Amazing Grace.” Yet when applied more broadly, I am concerned that this perception of the world does not match up with lived reality. Moreover, I suspect that grace itself does not match up with such a perception.


Jonathan Aigner, “But Seriously Chris Tomlin, Good Hymns Don’t Need Your New Choruses,” Patheos: Ponder Anew (July18, 2017),

Joshua Kalin Busman, “‘Yet to Come’ or ‘Still to Be Done’? Evangelical Worship and the Power of ‘Prophetic’ Songs,” Congregational Music-Making and Community in a Mediated Age, ed. Ann Nekola and Tom Wagner, Congregational Music Studies (Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2015), 199–214.

Lia C. Gerken, “Edwin O. Excell.” The Canterbury Dictionary of Hymnology. Canterbury Press, accessed July 8, 2019,

Monique M. Ingalls, “Singing Heaven Down to Earth: Spiritual Journeys, Eschatological Sounds, and Community Formation in Evangelical Conference Worship.” Ethnomusicology 55, no. 2 (2011): 255–279.

Monique M. Ingalls, Singing the Congregation: How Contemporary Worship Music Forms Evangelical Community. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018).

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Watch the video: Chris on Newton (January 2022).